, Pierre-Yves Boëlle*‡, Khashayar Pakdaman*, Fabrice Carrat*‡, Alain-Jacques Valleron*‡, and Antoine Flahault*†‡
Figure 4. Synchrony in the timing of the peaks of influenza epidemics for 26 influenza years (1972–1997). Distribution of the time lags between the epidemic peaks in weeks (main plot). The red bars represent the observed lags, and the dashed line represents the distribution of lags obtained by permutations. (inset plot) Distribution of the standard deviation of permuted lags under the assumption of no synchrony. Red arrow indicates the standard deviation in the observed data. A, United States and France, b) United States and Australia, C, France and Australia. Panels B and C illustrate the scenario in which the influenza season in Australia is systematically 6 months before that of the United States or France. Similar results are obtained for the reverse scenario.