Figure 4. Proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the hearts of susceptible mice during the innate immune response. Susceptible BALB/c mice were compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice for the level tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α (A), interleukin (IL)-1β (B), and IL-4 (C) cytokines in heart homogenates 6 and 12 hours after CB3 infection. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001. Modified from (33).