Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004

Predominant Tuberculosis Spoligotypes, Delhi, India

Urvashi Balbir Singh*, Naga Suresh*, N.Vijaya Bhanu*, Jyoti Arora*, Hema Pant*, Sanjeev Sinha*, Ram Charan Aggarwal*, Sushma Singh*, Jitendra Nath Pande*, Christophe Sola†, Nalin Rastogi†, and Pradeep Seth*
Author affiliations: *All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; †Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe

Main Article

Table 2

Predominant spoligotype prevalent in Delhi and shared type designations for 10 unique isolates, clade designation, and initial description (reference)

Spoligotype designation Spoligotype pattern Cladea Reference
Predominant spoligotype
Type 26 formula image Casi (Delhi) 13
Type 54 formula image Manu 5
Type 1 formula image Beijing 10
Shared spoligotype
Type 50 formula image H3 4
Type 52 formula image T2 4
Type 53 formula image T1 4
Type 138 formula image Eai 4
Type 141 formula image Cas1 5
Type 357 formula image Cas1 5
Type 381 formula image Cas1 4
Type 427 formula image Cas1 5
Type 458 formula image Eai 5,14
Type 1093 formula image Cas 4

aClades were defined according to the definitions in spolDB3.0 (6); = no hybridization, = positive hybridization. CAS1 (Central Asian 1) family (also termed as the "Delhi type") is characterized by 4–7 and 23–34; Manu (derived from the name of a Hindu mythological figure supposed to be the world's first king and father of the human race) is characterized by 33–34 (5), and presumed to be the probable ancestor of both the CAS and EAI (East African Indian). Beijing family is characterized by 1–34. Both EAI and CAS1 belong to the Major Genetic Group 1; H3 (Haarlem 3) belongs to the Major Genetic Group 2; and T1 and T2 are poorly defined families that belong to the Major Genetic Group 2 or 3 (11). T1 and T2 need other markers for a better characterization (T1, 33–36 and T2, 33–36 and 40 [6]).

Main Article

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Progress toward tuberculosis control—India. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001;51:22932.
  2. Kremer  K, van Soolingen  D, Frothingham  R, Haas  WH, Hermans  PWM, Martin  C, Comparison of methods based on different molecular epidemiological markers for typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: interlaboratory study of discriminatory power and reproducibility. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:260718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kamerbeek  J, Schouls  L, Kolk  A, van Agterveld  M, van Soolingen  D, Kuijper  S, Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacteium tuberculosis for diagnosis and epidemiology. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:90714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Goyal  M, Saunders  NA, van Embden  JDA, Young  DB, Shaw  RJ. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:64751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Filliol  I, Driscoll  JR, van Soolingen  D, Kreiswirth  BN, Kremer  K, Valétudie  G, A snapshot of moving and expanding clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their global distribution assessed by spoligotyping in an international study. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:196370. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Sola  C, Filliol  I, Guttierez  C, Mokrousov  I, Vincent  V, Rastogi  N. Spoligotype database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biogeographical distribution of shared types and epidemiological and phylogenetic perspectives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:3906. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Laszlo  A, Rahman  M, Raviglione  M, Bustreo  F. WHO/IUALTD Network of Supranational Reference Laboratories. Quality assurance programme for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the WHO/IUALTD Supranational Laboratory Network: first round of proficiency testing. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1997;1:2318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jaccard  P. Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat. 1908;44:22370.
  9. Sneath  PH, Sokal  AR. Numerical taxanomy: the principles and practices of classification. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Co.; 1973.
  10. Soini  H, Pan  X, Amin  A, Graviss  EA, Siddiqui  A, Musser  JM. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Houston, Texas, by spoligotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:66976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Sreevatsan  S, Pan  X, Stockbauer  K, Connell  N, Kreiswirth  B, Whittam  T, Restricted structural gene polymorphism in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex indicates evolutionarily recent global dissemination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;97:986974. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brosch  R, Gordon  SV, Marmiesse  M, Brodin  P, Buchrieser  C, Eiglmeier  K, A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:36849. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Vijaya-Bhanu  N, van Soolingen  D, van Embden  JDA, Dar  L, Pandey  RM, Seth  P. Predominance of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype in the Delhi region of India. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2002;82:10512. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Sebban  M, Mokrousov  I, Rastogi  N, Sola  C. A data-mining approach to spacer oligonucleotide typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bioinformatics. 2002;18:23543. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. van Soolingen  D, Qian  L, de Haas  PEW, Douglas  JT, Traore  H, Portaels  F, Predominance of a single genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in countries of east Asia. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:32348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Warren  RM, Streicher  EM, Sampson  SL, van der Spuy  GD, Richardson  M, Nguyen  D, Microevolution of the direct repeat region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for interpretation of spoligotyping data. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:445765. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. van Embden  JDA, van Gorkom  T, Kremer  K, Jansen  R, van der Zeijst  BAM, Schouls  LM. Genetic variation and evolutionary origin of the direct repeat locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:2393401. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Quitugua  TN, Seaworth  BJ, Weis  SE, Taylor  JP, Gillette  JS, Rosas  II, Transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas and Mexico. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:271624. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: April 23, 2012
Page updated: April 23, 2012
Page reviewed: April 23, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.