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Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005
Research

Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water

Leena Maunula*†, Ilkka T. Miettinen‡, and Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff*†
Author affiliations: *HUCH Laboratory Diagnostics, Helsinki, Finland; †University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; ‡National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland

Main Article

Table 1

Suspected and identified norovirus outbreaks, Finland, 1998–2003

Outbreak Date No. exposed/no. ill Water source
E1, community* Mar 1998 5,000/2,500 Surface water used as tap water
E2, community Apr 1998 15,000/2,000 Ground water
E3, rental camp cottage Jul 1998 45/13 Well
E4, camp on island Aug 1998 120/40 Communal, well
E5, community Jan 1999 2,500/200 Ground water
E6, factory area Feb 1999 250/100 Ground water
E7, community Apr 1999 160/58 Ground water
E8, spa Jul 1999 100/60 Well
E9, community* Mar 2000 10,000/5,500 Ground water
E10, private household Aug 2000 14/13 Well (drilled)
E11, community Dec 2000 2,200/300 Ground water
E12, farm (for guests) Apr 2002 50/25 Well (dug)
E13, community Oct 2002 960/300 Ground water
E14, guest house Feb 2003 13/11 Lake water used for drinking
E15, community May 2003 150/95 Well (drilled)
E16, rental cottage Aug 2003 25/20 Well
E17, holiday camp May 2003 56/40 Surface water (river)
E18, community Apr 2003 90/40 Ground water, broken pipe

*Detailed descriptions of the epidemics E1 and E9 have been published (10,19).

Main Article

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