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Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

Thanawat Tiensin*†Comments to Author , Prasit Chaitaweesub*, Thaweesak Songserm‡, Arunee Chaisingh§, Wirongrong Hoonsuwan*, Chantanee Buranathai*, Tippawon Parakamawongsa*, Sith Premashthira*, Alongkorn Amonsin¶, Marius Gilbert#, Mirjam Nielen†, and Arjan Stegeman†
Author affiliations: *Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok, Thailand; †Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; ‡Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; §National Institute of Animal Health, Bangkok, Thailand; ¶Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; #Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium

Main Article

Table 2

Poultry production system in Thailand*

Poultry production Biosecurity Market orientation Example
Sector 1 High Commercial Industrial integrated system: all components of the production chain (e.g., hatchery, feedmill, poultry farm, slaughterhouse, processing plant, transportation) owned by company with strictly implemented procedures for biosecurity
Sector 2 Moderate to high Commercial Semivertical integrated system (or contract farming system): poultry houses owned by the farmer but chicks, feed, and veterinary service supplied by private company. Birds kept indoors with basic physical barriers and hygiene to prevent contact with other animals
Sector 3 Low Commercial, local, or live-bird market Layer farm with caged birds in open sheds or free-roaming birds that spend time outside the shed
Sector 4 None Local Village or backyard poultry: birds freely roam the village around people and other animals, including cockfighting

*Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (14).

Main Article

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