Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006
Chimpanzee Adenovirus Antibodies in Humans, Sub-Saharan Africa
|Origin||% positive samples (p values)*†
|Human controls, United States (n = 50)||34.0||2.0||4.0||2.0|
|Human zoo workers, United States (n = 50)||28.0||0||0||0|
|Humans, Thailand (n = 200)||76.5||1.5||3.0||4.0|
|Humans, Cameroon (n = 405)||55.8||1.7 (0.6764)||7.9 (0.0045)||5.4 (0.1248)|
|Humans, Côte d'Ivoire (n = 169)||95.8||9.5 (0.0003)||10.7 (0.0008)||3.0 (0.9796)|
|Humans, Nigeria (n = 182)||89.0||4.9 (0.0267)||18.7 (<0.0001)||9.3 (0.0045)|
|Chimpanzees, United States (n = 50)||44.0||86.0 (<0.0001)||92.0 (<0.0001)||46.0 (<0.0001)|
*p values show statistical difference between percentages of sera positive for neutralizing antibodies to human and chimpanzee adenoviruses. Reactivity of human sera from Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria and of chimpanzee sera to the 3 chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses were compared with human sera from the United States (n = 100) and Thailand (n = 200); the last 2 were combined because these countries do not offer natural chimpanzee habitats (similarity of USA and Thailand data for these adenoviruses was statistically confirmed). A logistic regression model was fitted to compare the percentages of samples positive for neutralizing antibodies between different groups. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All analyses were performed by using SAS version 9.1 logistic procedure (9).
†Virus tested for neutralization with a previously described neutralization assay (10). Samples that neutralized virus at dilutions >1:20 were scored as positive.
- Xiang ZQ, Yang Y, Wilson JM, Ertl HC. A replication-defective human adenovirus recombinant serves as a highly efficacious vaccine carrier. Virology. 1996;219:220–7.
- Shiver JW, Fu TM, Chen L, Casimiro DR, Davies ME, Evans RK, Replication-incompetent adenoviral vaccine vector elicits effective anti-immunodeficiency-virus immunity. Nature. 2002;415:331–5.
- Vinner L, Wee EG, Patel S, Corbet S, Gao GP, Nielsen C, Immunogenicity in Mamu-A*01 rhesus macaques of a CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope from the primary isolate (Bx08) after synthetic DNA prime and recombinant adenovirus 5 boost. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:203–13.
- Fitzgerald JC, Gao GP, Reyes-Sandoval A, Pavlakis GN, Xiang ZQ, Wlazlo AP, A simian replication-defective adenoviral recombinant vaccine to HIV-1 gag. J Immunol. 2003;170:1416–22.
- Casimiro DR, Chen L, Fu TM, Evans RK, Caulfield MJ, Davies ME, Comparative immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys of DNA plasmid, recombinant vaccinia virus, and replication-defective adenovirus vectors expressing a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene. J Virol. 2003;77:6305–13.
- Farina SF, Gao GP, Xiang ZQ, Rux JJ, Burnett RM, Alvira MR, Replication-defective vector based on a chimpanzee adenovirus. J Virol. 2001;75:11603–13.
- Shiver JW. Gene therapy: chimpanzee-origin adenovirus vectors as vaccine. Banff, Alberta, Canada: Keystone Symposia; 2003.
- Basnight M Jr, Rogers NG, Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Characterization of four new adenovirus serotypes isolated from chimpanzee tissue explants. Am J Epidemiol. 1971;94:166–71.
- The LOGISTIC procedure. SAS version 9.1.3. Cary (NC): SAS Institute, Inc.; 2005.
- Reyes-Sandoval A, Fitzgerald JC, Grant R, Roy S, Xiang ZQ, Li Y, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific immune responses in primates upon sequential immunization with adenoviral vaccine carriers of human and simian serotypes. J Virol. 2004;78:7392–9.
- Tutin CE. Ecology and social organization of African tropical forest primates: aid in understanding retrovirus transmission. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2000;93:157–61.
- Hahn BH, Shaw GM, De Cock KM, Sharp PM. AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science. 2000;287:607–14.
- Switzer WM, Bhullar V, Shanmugam V, Cong M, Parekh B, Lerche NW, Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2004;78:2780–9.
- Calattini S, Maudere P, Tortevoye P, Froment A, Saib A, Gessain A. Interspecies transmission of simian foamy virus from chimpanzees and gorillas to Bantus and Pygmy hunters in southern Cameroon [abstract]. Würzburg, Germany: Fifth International Foamy Virus Conference. 2004 Jul 9–1.
- Kostense S, Koudstaal W, Sprangers M, Weverling GJ, Penders G, Helmus N, Adenovirus types 5 and 35 seroprevalence in AIDS risk groups supports type 35 as a vaccine vector. AIDS. 2004;18:1213–6.