Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006
West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin
|Species of dead birds||WNV positive, n (%)||No. WNV negative|
|Blue-winged teal (Anas discors)||16 (100)||0|
|Northern pintail (A. acuta)||4 (100)||0|
|Green-winged teal (A. carolinensis)||3 (100)||0|
|Falcated teal (A. falcate)||3 (100)||0|
|Northern shoveler (A. clypeata)||1 (100)||0|
|Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)||1 (100)||0|
|Cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii)||1 (100)||0|
|Eurasian widgeon (A. penelope)†||25 (96.1)||1|
|American widgeon (A. americana)||15 (93.8)||1|
|Siberian red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis)||3 (50.0)||3|
|Ross goose (Chen rossii)||2 (40.0)||3|
|Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus)||0||2|
|Common eider (Somateria mollissima)||0||1|
|Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)†||0||1|
|Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)†||0||1|
|Domestic turkey (Melleagris gallopavo)||0||1|
*WNV, West Nile virus.
†Species reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention avian mortality database as having tested positive for WNV from 1999 to present (6).
- Bin H, Grossman Z, Pokamunski S, Malkinson M, Weiss L, Duvdevani P, West Nile fever in Israel 1999–2000: from geese to humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:127–42.
- Austin RJ, Whiting TL, Anderson RA, Drebot MA. An outbreak of West Nile virus-associated disease in domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) upon initial introduction to a geographic region, with evidence of bird to bird transmission. Can Vet J. 2004;45:117–23.
- Glavits R, Ferenczi E, Ivanics E, Bakonyi T, Mato T, Zarka P, Co-occurrence of West Nile fever and circovirus infection in a goose flock in Hungary. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:408–14.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus infection among turkey breeder farm workers—Wisconsin, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:1017–9.
- Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4066–71.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus. Vertebrate ecology. 2005 Jan 5 [cited 2005 Dec 1]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/birdspecies.htm
- Lindsey HS, Calisher CH, Mathews JH. Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. J Clin Microbiol. 1976;4:503–10.
- Docherty DE, Long RR, Griffin KM, Saito EK. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:907–9.
- Komar N, Lanciotti R, Bowen R, Langevin S, Bunning M. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:741–2.
- Ratterree MS, da Rosa AP, Bohm RP Jr, Cogswell FB, Phillippi KM, Caillouet K, >West Nile virus infection in nonhuman primate breeding colony, concurrent with human epidemic, southern Louisiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1388–94.
- US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Avian influenza. Protecting poultry workers at risk. Safety and health information bulletin 12–13–2004. [cited 2005 Dec 1]. Available from http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib121304.pdf
Page created: November 17, 2011
Page updated: November 17, 2011
Page reviewed: November 17, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.