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Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008

Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains

Elizabeth M. Botha*, Wanda Markotter*, Mariaan Wolfaardt*, Janusz T. Paweska†, Robert Swanepoel†, Gustavio Palacios‡, Louis H. Nel*, and Marietjie Venter*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; †National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, South Africa; ‡Columbia University, New York, New York, USA;

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics and origin of West Nile virus strains included in this investigation*

Strain, year of isolation Passage Source Location Syndrome Outcome L Neuro Glyco Ref GenBank
SPU116/89, 1989 Mouse 3 Human SA Necrotic hepatitis Died 2 High NYS† This study EF429197
SA93/01, 2001 Mouse 1 Human SA Fever, rash, myalgia, encephalitis Survived 2 High NYS† This study EF429198
SA381/00, 2000 Mouse 1 Human SA Fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia Survived 2 Mild NYS† This study EF429199
H442, 1958 Mouse 2 Human SA Fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia Survived 2 High NYS† This study EF429200
B956, 1937 Mouse 2 Human Uga Febrile disease Survived 2 Mild Deletion of entire motif (7) AY532665
B956D117B3,‡ 1937 Unknown Human Uga Febrile disease Survived 2 Less than B956 Deletion of entire motif (15) M12294
Madagascar-AnMg798, 1978 Unknown Parrot§ Mad NA Died 2 None NYP (16) DQ176636
NY 385–99, 1999 Vero 2 Human USA Unknown Unknown 1 High NYS† (17) DQ211652
NY-385–99 Clone TYP-9376, 2005 Hamster Hamster USA NA NA 1 None¶ NYS† (18) AY848697
NY-385–99 Clone 9317B, 2005 Hamster Hamster USA NA NA 1 None¶ NYS† (18) DO66423
TM171–03, 2003 Vero 1 Common raven Mex Unknown Died 1 None¶ NYP (19) AY660002
MRM61C, 1960 NA Mosquito# Aus NA NA 1 None NYF (20) D00246

*L, lineage; Neuro, neuroinvasiveness in mice; Glyco, glycosylation of envelope protein; Ref., reference no.; GenBank, GenBank accession no.; SA, South Africa; Uga, Uganda; Mad, Madagascar; NA, not applicable; USA, United States; Mex, Mexico; Aus, Australia.
†Strains that are glycosylated in the envelope protein positions 154–156.
‡A descendant of B956.
§Coracopsis vasa.
¶Attenuated laboratory strains.
#Culex annulirostris.

Main Article

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