Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Bacillus anthracis from Sverdlovsk Tissue

Richard T. Okinaka*†, Melinda Henrie*, Karen K. Hill*, KristinS. Lowery‡, Matthew Van Ert†, Talima Pearson†, James Schupp†, Leo Kenefic†, Jodi Beaudry†, Steven A. Hofstadler‡, Paul J. Jackson*§, and Paul Keim*†¶Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA; †Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA; ‡Ibis Biosciences Inc, Carlsbad, California, USA; §Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA; ¶Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA;

Main Article


Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) typing and a new pagA SNP from Sverdlovsk 7.RA93.15.15 (spleen)*
View Actual Table

Isolate Country of origin Lineage/group (10) canSNP,
A.Br.007 canSNP,
A.Br.008 canSNP,
A.Br.009 SNP,
pagA 981
A1055 C.Br.A055 T T A –pXO1
KrugerB B.Br.KrugerB T T A A
Ames A.Br.Ames T T A A
Sterne A.Br.Ames T T A A
Australia94 A.Br.Aust94 T T A A
Vollum A.Br.Vollum C T A A
(Branch point) A.Br.008/009 T G A
Sv7,RA93.15.15 (spleen) A.Br.008/009 T G A T
Sv31.RA93.39.3 T
Sv40.RA93.40.5 T
Sv25.RA93.031 T
Sv1.RA93.42.1 T
Sv33.RA93.20.5 T
Sv21.RA93.38.4 T
Western North America A.Br.WNA T G G A
A0362 Norway A.Br.008/009 T G A T
A0417 Hungary A.Br.008/009 T G A T
A0324 Slovakia A.Br.008/009 T G A T
A0293 Italy A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0463 Pakistan A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0149 Turkey A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0264 Turkey A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0032 China A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0033 China A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0241 Turkey A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0245 Turkey A.Br.008/009 T G A A
A0463 Pakistan A.Br.008/009 T G A A

*This table illustrates 2 canSNPs that distinguish the subgroup/branch point A.Br.008/009 from the Western North American (WNA) sublineage. The table also depicts the status of the pagA 981 SNP in 7 of 12 Sverdlovsk samples and several other key isolates. Black shading, WNA lineage; gray shading, subgroup A.Br.008/009.

Main Article

  1. Meselson  M, Guillemin  J, Hugh-Jones  M, Langmuir  A, Popova  I, Shelokov  A, The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science. 1994;266:12028. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramova  FA, Grinberg  LM, Yampolskaya  OV, Walker  DH. Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:22914. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Jackson  PJ, Hugh-Jones  ME, Adair  DM, Green  G, Hill  KK, Kuske  CR, PCR analysis of tissue samples from the 1979 Sverdlovsk anthrax victims: the presence of multiple Bacillus anthracis strains in different victims. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12249. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jackson  PJ, Walthers  EA, Kalif  AS, Richmond  KL, Adair  DM, Hill  KK, Characterization of the variable-number tandem repeats in vrrA from different Bacillus anthracis isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:14005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Price  LB, Hugh-Jones  M, Jackson  PJ, Keim  P. Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:235862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Keim  P, Kalif  A, Schupp  J, Hill  K, Travis  SE, Richmond  K, Molecular evolution and diversity in Bacillus anthracis as detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:81824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Pearson  T, Busch  JD, Ravel  J, Read  TD, Rhoton  SD, U’Ren  JM, Phylogenetic discovery bias in Bacillus anthracis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms from whole-genome sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1353641. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Worobey  M. Anthrax and the art of war (against ascertainment bias). Heredity. 2005;94:45960. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Keim  P, Van Ert  MN, Pearson  T, Vogler  AJ, Huynh  LY, Wagner  DM. Anthrax molecular epidemiology and forensics: using the appropriate marker for different evolutionary scales. Infect Genet Evol. 2004;4:20513. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Van Ert  MN, Easterday  WR, Huynh  LY, Okinaka  RT, Hugh-Jones  ME, Ravel  J, Global genetic population structure of Bacillus anthracis.. PLoS One. 2007;2:e461. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Van Ert  MN, Hofstadler  SA, Jiang  Y, Busch  JD, Wagner  DM, Drader  JJ, Mass spectrometry provides accurate characterization of two genetic markers in Bacillus anthracis. Biotechniques. 2004;37:64251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanson  RP. The earliest account of anthrax in man and animals in North America. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1959;135:4635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Sue  D, Marston  CK, Hoffmaster  AR, Wilkins  PP. Genetic diversity in a historical collection of Bacillus anthracis (1954–1988). J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:177782. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Van Ert  MN, Easterday  WR, Simonson  TS, U’Ren  JM, Pearson  T, Kenefic  LJ, Strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism assays for the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:4753. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Alibeck  K, Handelman  S. Biohazard: the chilling true story of the largest covert biological weapons program in the world. New York: Dell Publishing; 1999.

Main Article

Page created: July 13, 2010
Page updated: July 13, 2010
Page reviewed: July 13, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.