Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009
Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States
|Pathogen||Primary clinical syndrome in humans|
|Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus||Aseptic meningitis|
|Cercopithecine herpesvirus-1 (herpes B)||Encephalitis|
|Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus||Encephalitis|
|Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex†||Encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever|
|Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Ebola viruses†||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Lassa fever virus||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Marburg virus||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Rift Valley fever virus||Hemorrhagic fever|
|South American hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses†||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Hantaviruses associated with HFRS†||Hemorrhagic fever with nephropathy|
|Hantaviruses associated with HCPS†||Severe respiratory syndrome|
|Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus||Severe respiratory syndrome|
|SARS virus (or SARS-like CoV)||Severe respiratory syndrome|
|Yellow fever virus||Systemic illness or hemorrhagic fever|
||Systemic illness or rash
|Brucella spp.||Systemic illness|
|Coxiella burnetii||Systemic illness|
|Leptospira spp.||Systemic illness|
|Bacillus anthracis||Varies by site of infection|
|Burkholderia mallei||Varies by site of infection|
|Francisella tularensis||Varies by site of infection|
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex†||Varies by site of infection|
||Varies by site of infection
|Helminths, Echinococcus spp.||Hydatid cyst disease|
*Risk zoonoses, relevant zoonotic diseases at risk for importation into the United States; HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; HCPS, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; CoV, coronavirus.
†Rabies viruses includes the zoonotic lyssaviruses Australian bat lyssavirus, Duvenhage, European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2, Mokolo, and rabies (11); tick-borne encephalitis complex includes Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and tickborne encephalitis (11); Ebolaviruses include Bundibugyo, Côte d'Ivoire, Reston, Sudan, and Zaire (11); epidemiologically relevant South American hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses include Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia (11); hantaviruses associated with HFRS include Dobrava, Hantaan, Puumala, Saaremaa, and Seoul (11); hantaviruses associated with HCPS include Andes, Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Laguna Negra, New York, and Sin Nombre (11); Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species are M. africanum, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. caprae, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, and M. tuberculosis hominis (12).
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