Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009

Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa

Iris E. Andernach, Claudine Nolte, Jean W. Pape, and Claude P. MullerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Institute of Immunology, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (I.E. Andernach, C.P. Muller); Groupe d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (C. Nolte, J.W. Pape); Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA (J.W. Pape).

Main Article

Table 1

Number of serum samples investigated, including suspected mixed and recombinant strains of HBV, Haiti*

Samples No. samples (no. partial sequences)
No. serum samples (HBsAg positive) available 320
No. serum samples PCR positive 247
No. serum samples for which sequences were obtained† 182
Full-length genome 68
Full preS fragment 57 (37)
Full S fragment 67 (19)
Full X fragment 67 (20)
Full C fragment 20 (34)
No. serum samples of suspected mixed strains 25
Full-length genome 10
Full preS fragment 8 (3)
Full S fragment 12 (2)
Full X fragment 10 (2)
Full C fragment 3 (3)
No. serum samples of suspected recombinant strains 6
preS fragment 3
S fragment
X fragment 3
C fragment

*HBV, hepatitis B virus; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen.
†No. serum samples includes 3 outliers and excludes mixed or recombinant strains.

Main Article

Page created: September 13, 2012
Page updated: September 13, 2012
Page reviewed: September 13, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.