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Volume 15, Number 9—September 2009

Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease

Brent Race1Comments to Author , Kimberly D. Meade-White1, Michael W. Miller, Kent D. Barbian, Richard Rubenstein, Giuseppe LaFauci, Larisa Cervenakova, Cynthia Favara, Donald Gardner, Dan Long, Michael Parnell, James Striebel, Suzette A. Priola, Anne Ward, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Richard Race3, and Bruce Chesebro3
Author affiliations: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana, USA (B. Race, K.D. Meade-White, K.D. Barbian, C. Favara, D. Gardner, D. Long, M. Parnell, J. Striebel, S.A. Priola, A. Ward, R. Race, B. Chesebro); Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (M.W. Miller); State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA (R. Rubenstein); New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, New York, USA (G. LaFauci); American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland, USA (L. Cervenakova); University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA (E.S. Williams)

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Table 5

Infectivity of CWD agent from cervids, squirrel monkeys, and cynomolgus macaques in transgenic mice expressing deer PrP or human PrP*

Donor† Original inoculum Donor PrPres‡ TSE disease incidence§
tg33 (deer) tg66 (human) tgRM (human)
SM 322¶ Elk-3 + 0/8 NT 0/6
SM 308¶ MD-1 + 0/7 0/8 0/8
SM 301 Elk-3 ± 0/6 NT NT
SM 320 Uninfected 0/7 NT NT
CM 609 MD-1 0/8 NT NT
Elk-3 NA + 6/6 (301 ± 11) NT NT
MD-1 NA + 7/7 (323 ± 15) NT NT
sCJD (97–008) NA + NT NT 4/6 (170 ± 3)
sCJD (99–009) NA + NT NT 5/5 (194 ± 20)
sCJD (RR) NA + NT 8/8 (163 ± 1) NT
sCJD (PLG) NA + NT 4/4 (163 ± 6) NT

*CWD, chronic wasting disease; PrP, prion protein; TSE, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy; NT, not tested; sCJD, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
†Each donor monkey inoculum was prepared as a 1% brain homogenate from the indicated monkeys. SM, squirrel monkey; CM, cynomolgus macaque. Elk and mule deer CWD inocula were described in Materials and Methods. Human sCJD inocula are brain homogenates from World Health Organization CJD reference materials. No. 99–009 is sCJD M/M type I, and no. 97–008 is sCJD M/M type II. The RR sample was from a patient with sCJD of unknown PrP genotype. The PLG sample (M/M type I) was from a patient with sCJD. In all cases except sCJD (RR), 50 μL was inoculated intracerebrally into recipient mice; for sCJD (RR), 30 μL was inoculated.
‡Based on Western blot or immunohistochemical analysis of brain for all except monkey 301, in which protease-resistant PrP (PrPres) was detected in spleen but not brain.
§Number of recipient mice with clinical transmissible spongiform encephalopathy confirmed by detection of brain PrPres is the numerator, and total number of mice inoculated is the denominator. Mean ± SEM incubation period for time to clinical disease is provided in days. Tg33 mice express deer PrP, and tg66 and tgRM mice express human PrP.
¶In addition to brain homogenate, we also inoculated tg33 mice with homogenates of spleen, lymph nodes, heart, muscle, and plasma from squirrel monkeys 322, 308, and 321, but disease did not develop during >600 d observation.

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.


3Co-senior authors.

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