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Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only

Findings, Gaps, and Future Direction for Research in Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza

Charles J. VukotichComments to Author , Rebecca M. Coulborn, Tomas J. Aragon, Michael G. Baker, Barri B. Burrus, Allison E. Aiello, Benjamin J. Cowling, Alasdair Duncan, Wayne Enanoria, M. Patricia Fabian, Yu-hui Ferng, Elaine L. Larson, Gabriel M. Leung, Howard Markel, Donald K. Milton, Arnold S. Monto, Stephen S. Morse, J. Alexander Navarro, Sarah Y. Park, Patricia C. Priest, Samuel Stebbins, Alexandra M. Stern, Monica Uddin, and Scott F. Wetterhall
Author affiliations: University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (C.J. Vukotich, S. Stebbins); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA (R.M. Coulborn, A.E. Aiello, H. Markel, A.S. Monto, J.A. Navarro, A.M. Stern, M. Uddin); University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (T.J. Aragon, W. Enanoria); University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (M.G. Baker, A. Duncan, P. Priest); RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA (B.B. Burrus, S.F. Wetterhall); University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China (B.J. Cowling, G. M. Leung); University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA (M.P. Fabian); Columbia University, New York, New York, USA (Y. Ferng, E.L. Larson, S.S. Morse); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA (D.K. Milton); Hawaii Department of Health, Honolulu, Hawaii (S.Y. Park).

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Table 1

List of projects funded during 2007–2009 under Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nonpharmaceutical Intervention Studies for Pandemic Influenza RFA-CI06-010*

Study title Institution Principal investigator(s) Description
Evaluation of Masks as a Source Control NPI, School of Health and Environment University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts, USA Donald K. Milton Built an exhaled breath sampling device for influenza virus; measured number and aerosol size distribution of exhaled influenza virus; and measured the effect of wearing a surgical mask on generation of large- and fine-particle aerosols containing influenza virus.
Stopping Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) and Flu in the Family: The Stuffy Trial School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA Elaine L. Larson Tested the effectiveness of 1) alcohol based hand sanitizer and 2) sanitizer coupled with face masks on the rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza, symptoms of influenza, and viral upper respiratory infections.
Community-based Nonpharmaceutical Intervention for Pandemic Influenza RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA Scott F. Wetterhall Assessed, implemented, and evaluated community-level NPI strategies to prevent influenza in rural North Carolina communities.
A Controlled Trial of Masks and Hand Hygiene for Reducing Influenza Transmission School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Gabriel M. Leung and
Benjamin J. Cowling Tested the effectiveness of 1) hand hygiene (hand washing and the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer) and 2) hand hygiene combined with surgical face masks to prevent influenza transmission within household from persons at an outpatient clinic
Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project (PIPP) Center for Public Health Practice, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA Donald S. Burke and Sam Stebbins Tested hand hygiene and etiquette, hand sanitizer, and home isolation on the transmission of influenza and other diseases, and absenteeism in kindergarten through 5th-grade schools.
Reducing Transmission of Influenza by Face Masks (M-FLU) Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Arnold S. Monto and Allison E. Aiello Evaluated face masks and hand hygiene to estimate the reduction in the rate of influenza infection and ILI among students living in university residence halls.
REDucing Influenza-like illness among University Students: The REDI-US Study Center for Infectious Diseases & Emergency Readiness, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA Tomas J. Aragon Tested the effectiveness of online education of respiratory and cough etiquette, hand hygiene, hand awareness, and face mask use in reducing the occurrence of ILI among university students.
Pandemic Influenza Control at the Borders of Island Countries and in Households Pandemic Influenza Research Group, University of Otago, New Zealand Michael G. Baker, Patricia Priest, Lance Jennings,
Nick Wilson, and Heath Kelly Assessed the effectiveness of maritime quarantine for preventing entry of the 1918 pandemic into Pacific Island countries.
Estimated the reduction in travel volumes and the quarantine duration needed to exclude pandemic influenza from island nations.
Analyzed the relationship between influenza hospitalization and levels of household crowding and other potentially modifiable factors among public housing residents.
Screened travelers on international flights for seasonal influenza.
Surveillance of Influenza-like Illness among International Air Travelers Hawai`i Department of Health, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Sarah Y. Park Assessed regional capacity and feasibility to implement voluntary risk-based entry screening of air travelers for ILI.
History Informing Public Health Preparedness Policy in the 21st Century: A Qualitative Study of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions and Community Experiences during the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic Center for the History of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Howard Markel, Alexandra M. Stern, and J. Alexander Navarro Examined the role of NPI for epidemic mitigation in 43 cities in the continental United States from 1918–19 influenza pandemic.
Began creating the first historical atlas on the 1918–19 influenza pandemic in the United States.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions to Reduce Household Influenza Transmission: Bangkok “HITS” Study (Household Influenza Transmission Study) The Influenza Division, International Emerging Infections Program, Thailand Ministry of Public Healty–US CDC Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand Mark Simmerman Evaluated 1) hand washing and 2) hand washing plus face mask use to reduce the spread of influenza in households of pediatric hospital–based clinic patients, testing positive for influenza.

*NPI, nonpharmaceutical intervention; ILI, influenza-like illness.

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Page created: December 23, 2010
Page updated: December 23, 2010
Page reviewed: December 23, 2010
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