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Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only

Findings, Gaps, and Future Direction for Research in Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza

Charles J. VukotichComments to Author , Rebecca M. Coulborn, Tomas J. Aragon, Michael G. Baker, Barri B. Burrus, Allison E. Aiello, Benjamin J. Cowling, Alasdair Duncan, Wayne Enanoria, M. Patricia Fabian, Yu-hui Ferng, Elaine L. Larson, Gabriel M. Leung, Howard Markel, Donald K. Milton, Arnold S. Monto, Stephen S. Morse, J. Alexander Navarro, Sarah Y. Park, Patricia C. Priest, Samuel Stebbins, Alexandra M. Stern, Monica Uddin, and Scott F. Wetterhall
Author affiliations: University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (C.J. Vukotich, S. Stebbins); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA (R.M. Coulborn, A.E. Aiello, H. Markel, A.S. Monto, J.A. Navarro, A.M. Stern, M. Uddin); University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (T.J. Aragon, W. Enanoria); University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (M.G. Baker, A. Duncan, P. Priest); RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA (B.B. Burrus, S.F. Wetterhall); University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China (B.J. Cowling, G. M. Leung); University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA (M.P. Fabian); Columbia University, New York, New York, USA (Y. Ferng, E.L. Larson, S.S. Morse); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA (D.K. Milton); Hawaii Department of Health, Honolulu, Hawaii (S.Y. Park).

Main Article

Table 2

Research gaps in identifying, improving, and evaluating the effectiveness of NPIs in mitigating the spread of pandemic influenza*

Behavioral and social sciences
  Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to use of NPIs across diverse populations
  Role of social, demographic, and cultural factors on NPI practice
  Decision-making dynamics with respect to NPI recommendations
  Effective risk communication strategies for enhancing NPI compliance
  Extent of barriers to implementation of NPIs
  How behavioral and social determinants influence NPI efficacy
Biological and technological sciences
  Adequate clinical influenza definitions
  Prevalence and impact of asymptomatically influenza-infected persons
  Sensitive and specific influenza rapid tests for community-based studies
  Relative contributions of influenza virus transmission modalities (i.e., large droplet, small-particle droplet nuclei, and contact) to disease spread
  The clinical implications of influenza viral load
  The prevalence, risk factors, and impact of influenza superspreaders on disease transmission
  The impact of environmental, crowding, and density on influenza transmission
  The influence of international travel on transmission of influenza
  Sensitive and specific screening tools for identifying influenza-infected travelers at international borders
  Efficacy of different types of masks, hand hygiene, and combinations of personal protective measures for reducing transmission of influenza

*NPI, nonpharmaceutical intervention.

Main Article

Page created: December 23, 2010
Page updated: December 23, 2010
Page reviewed: December 23, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.