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Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012

Outbreak of Leptospirosis after Flood, the Philippines, 2009

Al-shere T. Amilasan1, Mugen Ujiie1, Motoi SuzukiComments to Author , Eumelia Salva, Maria Cecilia P. Belo, Nobuo Koizumi, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Shane Marte, Efren M. Dimaano, Jose Benito Villarama, and Koya Ariyoshi
Author affiliations: San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Republic of the Philippines (A.T. Amilasan, E. Salva, M.C.P. Belo, S. Marte, E.M. Dimaano, J.B. Villarama); National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (M. Ujiie); Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (M. Ujiie, M. Suzuki, W.-P. Schmidt, K. Ariyoshi); National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (N. Koizumi); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (K. Yoshimatsu)

Main Article

Table 2

Effects of therapeutic approaches on death from leptospirosis, San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines, 2009

Therapeutic factorTotal cases, n = 471*Fatal cases, n = 51*Univariate analysis
Multivariate analysis
Risk ratio95% CIRisk ratio95% CI
Days from onset to first antimicrobial drug therapy, n = 4664.9 ± 2.65.6 ±–1.181.09†1.00–1.17
<7351 (75.3)31 (63.3)ReferenceReference
>7115 (24.7)18 (36.7)1.771.03–3.051.76†1.03–3.01
First antimicrobial agent used, n = 469
Penicillin G434 (92.5)47 (94)ReferenceReference
Ceftriaxone10 (2.1)2 (4)0.790.26–2.420.62‡0.16–2.38
Doxycycline9 (1.9)0 (0)
Others16 (3.4)1 (2)
Days from onset to admission†5.1 ± 2.65.7 ±–1.161.08†1.0–1.16
Rapid volume replacement therapy
Performed334 (70.9)46 (90.2)3.771.53–9.32.63§0.6–11.4
Not performed137 (29.1)5 (9.8)ReferenceReference
Used356 (75.6)46 (90.2)2.971.21–7.311.15§0.31–4.23
Not used115 (24.4)5 (9.8)ReferenceReference

*Values are no. (%) or mean ± SD.
†Adjusted for age group (<30 or >30 y).
‡Adjusted for age group and duration from symptom onset to antimicrobial therapy initiation.
§Adjusted for age group and creatinine level.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: December 16, 2011
Page updated: December 16, 2011
Page reviewed: December 16, 2011
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