Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012

Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium africanum, Burkina Faso

Michel K. Gomgnimbou, Guislaine Refrégier, Serge Diagbouga, Sanou Adama, Antoinette Kaboré, Adama Ouiminga, and Christophe SolaComments to Author 
Author affiliations: CNRS–Université Paris–Sud, Orsay, France (M.K. Gomgnimbou, G. Refrégier, C. Sola); Ministère de la Santé, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (S.P. Diagbouga); Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso (S. Adama, A. Kaboré, A. Ouiminga)

Main Article


Distribution of classified genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Burkina Faso*

Clade† No. (%) isolates, n = 72‡
CAM 18 (25)
Including CAM_family prototype = SIT61 14 (19)
Other CAM 4 (6)
T 16 (22.2)
Including T1 10 (13.9)
Undefined T1-T2 2 (2.8)
T2 1 (1.4)
T3 1 (1.4)
T5_MAD2 2 (2.8)
Haarlem 10 (13.9)
Including H1 7 (9.7)
H3 3 (4.2)
X 4 (5.6)
Including X3 1 (1.4)
M. africanum I (WA I and WA 2) 16 (22.2)
M. bovis 1 (1.4)
CAS1_Delhi 5 (6.9)
LAM9 1 (1.4)
Beijing 1 (1.4)

*CAM, Cameroon; SIT, spoligo-international type; WA, West African; CAS, Central Asian; LAM, Latino American–Mediterranean.
†Described in (9).
‡Excludes 4 new and 4 unclassified genotypes.

Main Article

  1. de Jong  BC, Antonio  M, Gagneux  S. Mycobacterium africanum–review of an important cause of human tuberculosis in west Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e744. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Godreuil  S, Torrea  G, Terru  D, Chevenet  F, Diagbouga  S, Supply  P, First molecular epidemiology study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Burkina Faso. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:9217. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Viana-Niero  C, Gutierrez  C, Sola  C, Filliol  I, Boulahbal  F, Vincent  V, Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium africanum clinical isolates based on IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and variable number of tandem DNA repeats. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:5765. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Intemann  CD, Thye  T, Niemann  S, Browne  EN, Amanua Chinbuah  M, Enimil  A, Autophagy gene variant IRGM −261T contributes to protection from tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not by M. africanum strains. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000577. Epub 2009 Sep 11. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ledru  S, Cauchoix  B, Yameogo  M, Zoubga  A, Lamande-Chiron  J, Portaels  F, Impact of short-course therapy on tuberculosis drug resistance in south-west Burkina Faso. Tuber Lung Dis. 1996;77:42936. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Zhang  J, Abadia  E, Refregier  G, Tafaj  S, Boschiroli  ML, Guillard  B, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex CRISPR genotyping: improving efficiency, throughput and discriminative power of “spoligotyping” with new spacers and a microbead-based hybridization assay. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:28594. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kamble  RR, Shinde  VS, Madhale  SP, Kamble  AA, Ravikumar  BP, Jadhav  RS. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:579. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. van der Zanden  AG, Hoentjen  AH, Heilmann  FG, Weltevreden  EF, Schouls  LM, van Embden  JD. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in paraffin wax embedded tissues and in stained microscopic preparations. Mol Pathol. 1998;51:20914. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brudey  K, Driscoll  J, Rigouts  L, Prodinger  WM, Gori  A, Al-Hajoj  SAM, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, Population Genetics, and Epidemiology. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:23. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frothingham  R, Strickland  PL, Bretzel  G, Ramaswamy  S, Musser  JM, Williams  DL. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mycobacterium africanum isolates from west Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:19216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Vasconcellos  SE, Huard  RC, Niemann  S, Kremer  K, Santos  AR, Suffys  PN, Distinct genotypic profiles of the two major clades of Mycobacterium africanum. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:80. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Huet  M, Rist  N, Boube  G, Potier  D. Etude bactériologique de la tuberculose au Cameroon. Rev Tuberc Pneumol (Paris). 1971;35:41326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Niobe-Eyangoh  SN, Kuaban  C, Sorlin  P, Cunin  P, Thonnon  J, Sola  C, Genetic biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:254753. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Keating  LA, Wheeler  PR, Mansoor  H, Inwald  JK, Dale  J, Hewinson  RG, The pyruvate requirement of some members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is due to an inactive pyruvate kinase: implications for in vivo growth. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:16374. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: December 20, 2011
Page updated: December 20, 2011
Page reviewed: December 20, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.