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Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012

Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

Jan Felix Drexler, Ulrike Reber, Doreen Muth, Petra Herzog, Augustina Annan, Fabian Ebach, Nimarko Sarpong, Samuel Acquah, Julia Adlkofer, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Marcus Panning, Egbert Tannich, Jürgen May, Christian Drosten, and Anna Maria Eis-HübingerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (J.F. Drexler, U. Reber, D. Muth, A. Annan, F. Ebach, C. Drosten, A.M. Eis-Hübinger); Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (P. Herzog, J. Adlkofer, E. Tannich, J. May); Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana (A. Annan, N. Sarpong, S. Acquah); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Y. Adu-Sarkodie); and Freiburg University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany (M. Panning)

Main Article


Nucleotide sequence divergence of parvovirus 4 strains from nasal swab and fecal samples from children, Ghana, from genotype 1, 2, and 3 prototype strains*

Specimen type and no. Nucleotide position according to GenBank accession no. EU874248 Nucleotide sequence divergence from parvovirus 4 reference strains, %
Genotype 1 (GenBank AY622943) Genotype 2 BR10627–5 (GenBank DQ873390) Genotype 3 NG-OR (GenBank EU874248)
Nasal swab


1700–4660 6.56 7.39 0.92


299–4660 7.51 8.07 0.88


50–4660 7.37 8.38† 0.83


1962–2056‡ 9.16 6.73 2.14


2117–3413 4.97 5.31 0.93


1962–2056 9.16 6.73 2.14


2117–4183 5.50 6.34 0.98


299–4660 7.51 8.10 0.90


1962–2056 9.16 6.73 2.14


2431–2914 6.24 7.01 1.25


3068–3246 4.61 5.19 1.12


624–3246 7.36 7.84 0.84


1700–4183 6.20 6.82 0.89


1700–4460 6.56 7.39 0.92


1700–3716 6.08 6.52 0.85


1700–4183 6.02 6.78 0.89


1700–4183 6.93 6.73 1.04

*Pairwise nucleotide divergence was calculated by using the DNA distance matrix in BioEdit (
†Because the homologs of the first 92 nt of strain N3 are not given in the prototype strain BR10627–5, calculation of divergence started at N3 nt position 93.
‡Nucleotide sequence of the PCR product (primer sequences trimmed) was amplified by using screening PCR designed for detection of PARV4 genotype 3 as described (7).

Main Article

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Main Article

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