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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011

Anna R. Garbuglia, Paola Scognamiglio, Nicola Petrosillo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Pasquale Sordillo, Daniele Gentile, Patrizia La Scala, Enrico Girardi, and Maria R. CapobianchiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy (A.R. Garbuglia, P. Scognamiglio, N. Petrosillo, P. La Scala, E. Girardi, M.R. Capobianchi); Sapienza University, Rome (C.M. Mastroianni); Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Latina, Italy (C.M. Mastroianni); Tor Vergata University Polyclinic, Rome (P. Sordillo); and Local Health Unit ASL Roma H, Rome (D. Gentile)

Main Article

Table 2

Exposure and potential risk factors for 4 patients infected with hepatitis E virus during outbreak in Lazio, Italy, March–April 2011*

Factor Case-patient 1 Case-patient 2 Case-patient 4 Case-patient 5
Underlying disease IHD None IHD IHD
Farm residence or employment No No No No
Manure used for fruits/vegetables grown in backyard No No No No
Professional or amateur hunter No No Yes No
Occupational exposure to animals No No No No
Household pet or domestic animal ownership Dogs No Dogs, chicken No
Risk behavior during previous 2 months

Received blood transfusion

No No No No

Traveled abroad

No London No No

Had close contact with a recent traveler

Yes† No No No

Visited a farm or petting zoo

No No No No

Drank water from a well

No No No No

Had contact with surface water

No No No No

Had contact with waste water

Yes No No No
Food products consumed during previous 2 months


Yes No Yes No


Yes Yes Yes No

Poultry, undercooked

No No No No

Pork products, raw or undercooked

No Yes Yes Yes

Pork meat, undercooked

No No No No

Horse meat

No No No No

Beef, raw or undercooked

No No Yes Yes

Wild boar, cooked or undercooked

No No Yes No

Wild-animal meat (other than wild boar)

No No No No

Cattle liver

No No No Yes

Pig liver

No No No Yes

Other (e.g., kidney, gut)

No No No No

*Complete information was not available for case-patient 3 (isolate no. E2107). IHD, ischemic heart disease.
†Contact with a person returning from Poland and Romania.

Main Article

Page created: December 20, 2012
Page updated: December 20, 2012
Page reviewed: December 20, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.