Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013
Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda
|Pathogen||Test, cutoff value, and ref or kit||National park
|All 3 parks
|Sample size||Prevalence, % (95% CI)||Sample size||Prevalence, % (95% CI)||Sample size||Prevalence, % (95% CI)||Sample size||Prevalence, % (95% CI)|
|Rabies virus¶||FAVN, 0.24 IU/mL (4)||101||19.8 (12.7–28.6)||23||21.7 (9.0–43.3)||56||19.6 (11.0–32.0)||22||16.7 (5.9–37.2)|
|CDV||c-ELISA, Ingezim Moquillo IgG#||92||100.0 (95.9–100)||30||100 (88.8–100.0)||39||100 (91.4–100.0)||23||100 (85.4–100.0)|
|CPV||c-ELISA, Ingezim CPV#||92||65.2 (54.9–74.5)||26||80.8 (61.7–92.1)||43||76.7 (61.7–87.6)||23||26.1 (12.0–47.8)|
|Leptospira interrogans**||MAT, 1:200 (15)||105||26.7 (19.0–36.1)||27||25.9 (12.4–46.2)||55||29.1 (17.9–42.7)||23||21.7 (9.0–43.3)|
|Leishmania sp.††||c-ELISA, Ingezim Leishmania#||92||19.6 (12.3–29.2)||26||19.2 (7.9–38.3)||43||25.6 (14.6–40.6)||23||8.7 (1.6–27.8)|
|Toxoplasma gondii||MAT, 1:25 (3)||109||90.8 (83.6–95.1)||30||90.0 (73.7–97.2)||56||98.2 (90.5–99.9)||23||73.9 (52.2–88.0)|
|Neospora caninum||c-ELISA, 30% (3)||109||27.5 (19.6–36.6)||30||26.7 (13.1–45.0)||56||32.1 (21.2–45.5)||23||30.4 (14.5–52.2)|
*Ref, reference; FAVN, fluorescent antibody virus neutralization; CPV, canine parvovirus; c-ELISA, competitive ELISA; CDV, canine distemper virus; MAT, modified agglutination test.
†0°12′ S, 30°0′ E (savannah).
‡1°0′ S, 29°42′ E (tropical forest).
§1°16′ S, 29°40′ E (tropical forest).
¶Four dogs vaccinated against rabies in Queen Elizabeth are not included in these results.
#Manufactured by Ingenasa, Madrid, Spain.
**Fourteen serovars were investigated. Of the dogs seropositive, 71.5% were seropositive to 1 serovar and 28.5% to 2 serovars. Reacting serovars were Icterohaemorragiae (42.8% of positive dogs), Canicola (39.2%), Pyrogenes (21.4%), Tarassovi (10.7%), and Gryppothiposa and Australis (7.2% each).
††Antibodies probably correspond to contact with Leishmania donovani.
- Baker PJ, Soulsbury CD, Iossa G, Harris S. Domestic cat (Felis catus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). In: Gehrt SD, Riley SPD, Cypher BL, editors. Urban carnivores: ecology, conflict, and conservation. Baltimore (MD): The John Hopkins University Press; 2010. p. 157–72.
- Butler JRA, Bingham J. Demography and dog–human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands. Vet Rec. 2000;147:442–6 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cabezón O, Millán J, Gomis M, Dubey JP, Ferroglio E, Almería S. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1505–8 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mebatsion T, Sillero-Zubiri C, Gottelli D, Cox JH. Detection of rabies antibody by ELISA and RFFIT in unvaccinated dogs and in the endangered Simien jackal (Canis simensis) of Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 1992;39:233–5 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang YZ, Fu ZF, Wang DM, Zhou JZ, Wang ZX, Lv TF, Investigation of the role of healthy dogs as potential carriers of rabies virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:313–20 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cleaveland S, Appel MGJ, Chalmers WSK, Chillingworth C, Kaare M, Dye C. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Vet Microbiol. 2000;72:217–27 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Evangelista KV, Coburn J. Leptospira as an emerging pathogen, a review of its biology, pathogenesis and host immune responses. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1413–25 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kolaczinski JH, Reithinger R, Worku DT, Ocheng A, Kasimiro J, Kabatereine N, Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis in east Africa, a case-control study in Pokot territory of Kenya and Uganda. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:344–52 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cliquet F, Sagne L, Schereffer JL, Aubert MF. ELISA test for rabies antibody titration in orally vaccinated foxes sampled in the fields. Vaccine. 2000;18:3272–9 and. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dikken H, Kmety E. Serological typing methods of leptospires. Methods Microbiol. 1978;11:259–307.