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Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014

Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013

Victor M. Corman1, Joerg Jores1, Benjamin Meyer1, Mario Younan, Anne M. Liljander, Mohammed Y. Said, Ilona Gluecks, Erik Lattwein, Berend-Jan Bosch, Jan Felix Drexler, Set Bornstein, Christian DrostenComments to Author , and Marcel A. Müller
Author affiliations: University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (V.M. Corman, B. Meyer, J.F. Drexler, C. Drosten, M.A. Müller); International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (J. Jores, A. Liljander, M.Y. Said); Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Germany, Nairobi (M. Younan); Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Suisse, Nairobi (I. Gluecks); EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany (E. Lattwein); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (B.-J. Bosch); National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden (S. Bornstein)

Main Article

Table 1

Analysis for MERS-CoV in serum samples of dromedary camel from 3 regions in Kenya, 1992–2013*

Region County† Husbandry/ management Year No. samples No. rELISA positive samples (%) No. rIFA positive samples/rELISA positive samples (%)
Northeastern Mandera/ Wajir‡ Nomadic§ 2008 162 91 (56.2) 86/91 (94.5)
Eastern Isiolo Nomadic§ 1998 12 2 (16.7) 1/2 (50.0)
Marsabit Nomadic§ 1999 41 32 (78.0) 28/32 (87.5)
Variable Nomadic§ 2000 73 39 (53.4) 38/39 (97.4)
Marsabit Nomadic§ 2008 21 12 (57.1) 12/12 (100.0)
Marsabit Nomadic§ 2013 7 7 (100.0) 7/7 (100.0)
Rift Valley Laikipia¶ Ranch# 1992 22 1 (4.5) 0/1 (0.0)
Laikipia Ranch# 1996 37 2 (5.4) 2/2 (100.0)
Laikipia Ranch# 1998 50 0 (0.0) ND
Laikipia Ranch# 1999 175 32 (18.3) 30/32 (93.8)
Turkana Nomadic** 1999 50 7 (14.0) 6/7 (85.7)
Laikipia Ranch# 2000 56 2 (3.6) 2/2 (100.0)
Baringo Research center†† 2007 28 0 (0.0) ND
Laikipia Ranch 2013 40 1 (2.5) 1/1 (100.0)
Total 774 228 (29.5) 213/228 (93.4)

*MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; rELISA, recombinant ELISA for MERS-CoV subunit 1 spike protein (serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1:100); rIFA, recombinant immunofluorescence assay for MERS-CoV spike protein expression in Vero cells (serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1:40; ND, not done.
†Designated county refers to place of sampling or location in which camels were primarily located.
‡Data was merged because both counties had comparable antibody levels.
§High density of camels and regular contact between herds, including exchange of animals between herds in relation to lactation and reproduction status.
¶Formerly from Pakistan.
#Low density of camels and only sporadic contact between herds, with introduction of new animals only by purchase or livestock raiding, or restocking of camels.
**Low density of camels but more frequent contact between herds than on ranches This includes encounters at waterholes and night enclosures, as well as sharing of pastures with daily to weekly contact between herds.
††Isolated herd that originated in Wajir but was kept under quarantine-like isolation conditions for experimental work since 1998.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: May 06, 2014
Page updated: May 06, 2014
Page reviewed: May 06, 2014
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