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Volume 21, Number 10—October 2015

Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

Jeroen D. LangereisComments to Author  and Marien I. de Jonge
Author affiliations: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

Main Article


Invasive Haemophilus influenzae cases worldwide since introduction of serotype b vaccine*

Location Period of strain collection Surveillance method Typing method Changes in NTHi cases or incidence† Serotyped Hi isolates, no. Serotype
isolates, % Non–serotype b
isolates, % NTHi isolates, % Ref
Canada 1989–2007 Active, prospective surveillance SA Increased incidence 1,455 20 17 62 (1)
Canada 2000–2006 Nationwide surveillance SA+PCR No change 122 4 39 57 (2)
Europe 1996–2006 European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance SA or PCR No change 7,992 35 9 56 (3)
Germany 2001–2004 Nationwide surveillance Not reported NA 147 40 14 46 (4)
Israel‡ 2003–2012 Nationwide prospective surveillance SA No change 389 26 11 62 (5)
Multiple§ 2000–2008 Active population-based surveillance Not reported No change 398 6 17 77 (6)
Portugal 2002–2010 Laboratory-based passive surveillance PCR Increased cases 144 13 10 77 (7)
Slovenia 2000–2008 National surveillance PCR Increased incidence 108¶ 13 2 85 (8)
Spain 2004–2009 Nationwide surveillance PCR NA 307 5 8 87 (9)
Spain 2008–2013 Laboratory-based study SA NA 70 1 14 85 (10)
Sweden 1997–2009 Retrospective laboratory-based study PCR Increased cases or incidence 268# 11 18 71 (11)
Taiwan 1999–2002 National surveillance SA NA 10 20 0 80 (12)
USA, Alaska 1991–1996 Active surveillance SA NA 40 14 31 54 (13)
USA, Arkansas 1993–2001 Retrospective laboratory-based study SA NA 33 3 6 91 (14)
USA, Utah 1998–2008 Passive surveillance SA Increased cases or incidence 101 9 49 43 (15)
USA, Illinois 1996–2004 Passive surveillance SA Increased incidence 522 15 31 54 (16)
USA 1999–2008 Active surveillance SA Increased incidence 4190 4 26 70 (17,18)

*Hi, Haemophilus influenzae; NA, not applicable due to limited sample size (<100 isolates) or lack of year-to-year data; NTHi, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae; Ref, reference (see online Technical Appendix,; SA, slide agglutination; SA+PCR, slide agglutination positive isolates confirmed by PCR.
†Increased cases = increase in number of NTHi cases in patients >1 years of age; Increased incidence = increase in NTHi incidence rate in patients >1 year of age; No change = no difference in number or incidence rate of NTHi cases.
‡Pediatric cases (<15 years of age) only.
§Australia, Canada, and Denmark.
¶PCR-typed isolates from post-Hib vaccination era only.
#PCR-typed isolates only.


Main Article

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Main Article

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