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Volume 21, Number 12—December 2015

Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance and Organophosphate Susceptibility among Anopheles spp. Mosquitoes, Western Kenya

Christine L. Wanjala, Jernard P. Mbugi, Edna Ototo, Maxwell Gesuge, Yaw A. Afrane, Harrysone E. Atieli, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko, and Eugenia LoComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya (C.L. Wanjala, J.P. Mbugi, E. Ototo); Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya (C.L. Wanjala, E. Ototo, M. Gesuge, Y.A. Afrane, H.E. Atieli, A.K. Githeko); Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya (C.L. Wanjala); Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, USA (G. Zhou, G. Yan)

Main Article

Table 2

Distribution of knockdown resistance genotypes and mutation frequencies by Anopheles mosquito species and study sites of pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant, organophosphate-susceptible Anopheles mosquitoes, Western Kenya, 2012–2013*

Study site An. gambiae
An. arabiensis
No. LL LS SS Frequency, % No. LL LS SS Frequency, %
Ahero ND ND ND ND ND 50 46 4 0 4.0
Kisan 50 32 3 15 33.0 42 41 1 0 1.2
Chulaimbo 56 2 4 50 92.9 23 14 0 9 39.1
Emutete 87 7 4 76 89.7 ND ND ND ND ND
Emakakha 57 1 7 49 92.1 ND ND ND ND ND
Iguhu 108 10 7 91 87.5 16 15 1 0 3.1
Bungoma 53 5 5 43 85.8 ND ND ND ND ND

*LL, wild genotype at L1014 codon; SS, homozygous genotype for L1014S mutation; LS, heterozygous genotype; Frequency, allele frequency of L1014S mutation. ND, not done because of insufficient number of specimens.

Main Article

Page created: November 17, 2015
Page updated: November 17, 2015
Page reviewed: November 17, 2015
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