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Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015

Infectious Causes of Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003–2005

Sonja J. Olsen1Comments to Author , Angela P. Campbell1, Krongkaew Supawat, Sahas Liamsuwan, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Somsak Laptikulthum, Akravudh Viriyavejakul, Tasanee Tantirittisak, Supoch Tunlayadechanont, Anannit Visudtibhan, Punnee Vasiknanonte, Supachai Janjindamai, Pairoj Boonluksiri, Kiatsak Rajborirug, Veerachai Watanaveeradej, Nino Khetsuriani, Scott F. Dowell, and Thailand Encephalitis Surveillance Team
Author affiliations: Thailand Ministry of Public Health–US CDC Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.J. Olsen, S.F. Dowell); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.J. Olsen, A.P. Campbell, N. Khetsuriani, S.F. Dowell); Thailand Ministry of Health, Nonthaburi (K. Supawat); Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok (S. Liamsuwan, T. Chotpitayasunondh); Rajvithi Hospital, Bangkok (S. Laptikulthum); Prasat Neurological Institute of Thailand, Bangkok (A. Viriyavejakul, T. Tantirittisak); Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (S. Tunlayadechanont, A. Visudtibhan); Prince Songkhla University Hospital, Hat Yai, Thailand (P. Vasiknanonte, S. Janjindamai); Hat Yai Hospital, Hat Yai (P. Boonluksiri, K. Rajborirug); Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok (V. Watanaveeradej)

Main Article

Table 2

Clinical testing results for 149 patients meeting the case definition of encephalitis, Thailand, 2003–2005*

Hospital test No. positive/
no. tested (%) Organisms identified (no. if >1)
Culture 21/129 (16) Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli,1 gram-negative bacilli,† gram-positive cocci (2),2Haemophilus influenzae,3Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis/Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2),4Salmonella group D,5Staphylococcus aureus (3),6 Staphylococcus coagulase negative (5), Streptococcus pneumoniae,7 Streptococcus not group A, B, D
Malaria smear 0/123
VDRL 1/124 (1)
HIV‡ 8/137 (6)
Toxoplasmosis antibody

Cerebrospinal fluid
Culture 19/141 (13) Bacillus spp.,6 Cryptococcus, Cryptococcus/Acinetobacter spp. (2), E. coli,1 gram-negative nonfermenting bacilli† gram-positive cocci in clusters,† Haemophilus influenzae (2),3Neisseria meningitidis, P. aeruginosa,4 Salmonella group D,5 S. aureus, Staphylococcus, coagulase negative (3), 
S. pneumoniae (2),2,7 Streptococcus viridans
India ink stain 2/59 (3)
Cryptococcal antigen test 1/31 (3)
VDRL 0/6
Latex agglutination
Group B Streptococcus 1/43 (2)
Neisseria meningitidis 0/54
S. pneumoniae 3/55 (5)
H. influenzae 3/55 (5)
Escherichia coli 0/48
Herpes simplex virus 1/38 (3)
Varicella-zoster virus 1/5 (20)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
4/30 (13)

Sputum smear or culture
M. tuberculosis 1/21 (5)

*Superscript numbers indicate patients positive on blood and CSF culture for specified pathogens. GPA, gelatin particle agglutination; VDRL, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory. Blank cells indicate organism not applicable.
†Further identification not done.
‡6 were positive by ELISA (3 also by GPA, 2 also by GPA and immunochromatography, and 1 also by immunochromatography), 1 by GPA only, and 1 by an unrecorded assay.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

2Members are listed at the end of this article.

Page created: January 15, 2015
Page updated: January 15, 2015
Page reviewed: January 15, 2015
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