Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011
Roy Williams , Johan Malherbe, Harold Weepener, Phelix Majiwa, and Robert Swanepoel
Author affiliations: Agricultural Research Council–Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa (R. Williams, P. Majiwa); Agricultural Research Council–Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Pretoria, South Africa (J. Malherbe, H. Weepener); University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort (R. Swanepoel)
Figure 3. Mean seasonal rainfall anomalies for 4 consecutive seasons (November–March) in South Africa, 2007–2011. The anomalies were computed as deviations from the seasonal long-term mean for 1985–2011.
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