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Volume 22, Number 8—August 2016

Microgeographic Heterogeneity of Border Malaria During Elimination Phase, Yunnan Province, China, 2011–2013

Xin Xu1, Guofa Zhou1, Ying Wang, Yue Hu, Yonghua Ruan, Qi Fan, and Guiyun YanComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China (X. Xu, Y. Hu, Y. Ruan, Z. Yang); University of California, Irvine, California, USA (G. Zhou, G. Yan); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (Y. Wang); Dalian Institute of Biotechnology, Dalian, China (Q. Fan); Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA (L. Cui)

Main Article


Measurement of heterogeneous distribution of confirmed township-level malaria incidence rate, Yunnan Province, China, January 2011–December 2013

Parameter Year of surveillance
2011 2012 2013
No. townships with confirmed malaria* 33 27 19
No. malaria cases
Incidence rate†
Mean (95% CI) 17.9 (8.2–27.6) 29.1 (0–68.3) 31.7 (0–71.3)
Median 5.4 0 0
Range 200 1133.3 1133.3
Kurtosis 14.3 55.2 52.6
Skewness 3.6 7.4 7.1
Coefficient of variation 205.6 513.9 475.3

*Significant differences (p<0.05) were determined by χ2 test. The differences between 2001 and 2012 and between 2012 and 2013 were not significant; however, the difference between 2011 and 2013 was significant.
†Cases/100,000 population/year.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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