Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017
Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, UK
|Serotype group, serotype||IRR (95% CI)†||p value†|
*Boldface indicates significance. IRR, incidence rate ratio; PPV23–13, 23–valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine serotype cases, excluding those also contained in the 13–valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; NVT, nonvaccine type serotype cases.
†Increase in IRR per calendar quarter, estimated by using negative binomial regression, with counts per calendar quarter (from April 1–June 30, 2013 (Quarter 2) to January 1–March 31, 2016 (Quarter 1), robust standard errors and offset with the natural logarithm of the North East England population (10).
‡Includes 15B and 15B/C but excludes 15C serotypes as determined by the Public Health England Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacteria Reference Unit.
§NVT serotypes reported more than once in the epidemiologic year 2015–2016.
- Department of Health. Immunisation against infectious disease. The Green Book. 2012;25:295–313 [cited 2016 May 31]. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/147832/Green-Book-updated-140313.pdf
- Health & Social Care Information Centre. NHS Immunisation Statistics, England: 2014–2015 [cited 2016 Jul 19]. http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB18472
- Public Health England. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV): vaccine coverage estimates [cited 2016 Jul 19]. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv-vaccine-coverage-estimates
- Chapman KE, Wilson D, Gorton R. Serotype dynamics of invasive pneumococcal disease post-PCV7 and pre-PCV13 introduction in North East England. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:344–52.
- Waight PA, Andrews NJ, Ladhani SN, Sheppard CL, Slack MP, Miller E. Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales 4 years after its introduction: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:535–43.
- Galanis I, Lindstrand A, Darenberg J, Browall S, Nannapaneni P, Sjöström K, et al. Effects of PCV7 and PCV13 on invasive pneumococcal disease and carriage in Stockholm, Sweden. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:1208–18.
- Moore MR, Link-Gelles R, Schaffner W, Lynfield R, Lexau C, Bennett NM, et al. Effect of use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children on invasive pneumococcal disease in children and adults in the USA: analysis of multisite, population-based surveillance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:301–9.
- De Wals P, Lefebvre B, Markowski F, Deceuninck G, Defay F, Douville-Fradet M, et al. Impact of 2+1 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine program in the province of Quebec, Canada. Vaccine. 2014;32:1501–6.
- Hughes GJ, Wright LB, Chapman KE, Wilson D, Gorton R. Serotype-specific differences in short- and longer-term mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144:2654–69. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816000856
- Office for National Statistics. Annual mid-year population estimates: 2014 [cited 2015 May 3]. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/2015-06-25
- Kuster SP, Tuite AR, Kwong JC, McGeer A, Fisman DN; Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network Investigators. Evaluation of coseasonality of influenza and invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001042.
- McCullers JA, McAuley JL, Browall S, Iverson AR, Boyd KL, Henriques Normark B. Influenza enhances susceptibility to natural acquisition of and disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in ferrets. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1287–95.
- Pebody R, Warburton F, Andrews N, Ellis J, von Wissmann B, Robertson C, et al. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2014/15 end of season results. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:30013.
- Wyres KL, Lambertsen LM, Croucher NJ, McGee L, von Gottberg A, Liñares J, et al. Pneumococcal capsular switching: a historical perspective. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:439–49.
- Public Health England. Pneumococcal disease: guidance, data and analysis [cited 2016 May 31] https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/pneumococcal-disease-guidance-data-and-analysis
1These authors were co-principal investigators.