Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 23, Supplement—December 2017
Global Health Security Supplement

Establishment of CDC Global Rapid Response Team to Ensure Global Health Security

Tasha Stehling-ArizaComments to Author , Adrienne Lefevre, Dinorah Calles, Kpandja Djawe, Richard Garfield, Michael Gerber, Margherita Ghiselli, Coralie Giese, Ashley L. Greiner, Adela Hoffman, Leigh Ann Miller, Lisa Moorhouse, Carlos Navarro-Colorado, James Walsh, Dante Bugli, and Cyrus Shahpar
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article


Challenges encountered during response to the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa and GRRT mitigation strategies

Challenge GRRT strategy
Limited in-country capacity to detect and respond to disease outbreaks (1)
Support the development of national outbreak detection and response systems
Wide range of technical expertise required to address needs of a large outbreak response (1) Recruit team members with a wide range of technical expertise and experience

Train responders in multiple technical areas for high-risk diseases
Establishing working partnerships with governments and partner organizations for more efficient coordination (1,19,20) Train responders on working with partner organizations, incident management systems, cultural sensitivity, and foreign languages

Recruit dedicated, ready responders who can mobilize for up to 6 mo for stronger partner relationships and improved coordination
Short mobilizations (traditionally 30 d) and frequent rotation of staff disrupted continuity of response activities (19,20) Recruit dedicated responders who are available and ready to mobilize for up to 6 mo if needed
Expand the typical mobilization length of those in leadership roles

Develop best practices and systems for information management in field response
Responder preparation and readiness (19) Strengthen safety, security, and responder wellness training through a GRRT orientation
Support continuous learning by offering frequent technical trainings on priority topics
Track responder international travel–related mobilization requirements, training, and clearance compliance

Obtain supervisor preapproval for mobilizations during on-call months
Identifying appropriate responders (19)
Roster GRRT responders and tracking skills and experience to match staffing needs
Limited foreign language capacity (20)
Develop a program to develop and validate foreign language capacity
Logistical support for field efforts (19) Roster a group of dedicated and surge logisticians who can mobilize to provide support directly to responders in the field or coordinate with Atlanta-based logistics personnel to provide support

*GRRT, Global Rapid Response Team.

Main Article

  1. Bell  BP, Damon  IK, Jernigan  DB, Kenyon  TA, Nichol  ST, O’Connor  JP, et al. Overview, control strategies, and lessons learned in the CDC response to the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:411. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Breakwell  L, Gerber  AR, Greiner  AL, Hastings  DL, Mirkovic  K, Paczkowski  MM, et al. Early identification and prevention of the spread of Ebola in high-risk African countries. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:217. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Frieden  TR. Foreword. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:13. DOIGoogle Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreaks chronology: Ebola virus disease [cited 2017 Feb 24].
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa–case counts [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Why global health security matters [cited 2017 Feb 24].
  7. Heymann  DL, Chen  L, Takemi  K, Fidler  DP, Tappero  JW, Thomas  MJ, et al. Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic. Lancet. 2015;385:1884901. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Moon  S, Leigh  J, Woskie  L, Checchi  F, Dzau  V, Fallah  M, et al. Post-Ebola reforms: ample analysis, inadequate action. BMJ. 2017;356:j280. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gostin  LO, Tomori  O, Wibulpolprasert  S, Jha  AK, Frenk  J, Moon  S, et al. Toward a common secure future: four global commissions in the wake of Ebola. PLoS Med. 2016;13:e1002042. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mackey  TK. The Ebola outbreak: catalyzing a “shift” in global health governance? BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:699. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. World Health Organization. International Health Regulations. 2nd ed. Geneva: The Organization; 2005.
  12. Braden  CR, Dowell  SF, Jernigan  DB, Hughes  JM. Progress in global surveillance and response capacity 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:8649. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global health security agenda: action packages [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  14. Frieden  TR, Tappero  JW, Dowell  SF, Hien  NT, Guillaume  FD, Aceng  JR. Safer countries through global health security. Lancet. 2014;383:7646. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The global health security agenda [cited 2017 Feb 24].
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC’s role in global health security [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: overview [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  19. Rouse  EN, Zarecki  SM, Flowers  D, Robinson  ST, Sheridan  RJ, Goolsby  GD, et al. Safe and effective deployment of personnel to support the Ebola response—West Africa. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dahl  BA, Kinzer  MH, Raghunathan  PL, Christie  A, De Cock  KM, Mahoney  F, et al. CDC’s r to the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic—Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:1220. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Frieden  TR, Damon  IK. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s role in epidemic detection, control, and prevention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1897905. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Arwady  MA, Bawo  L, Hunter  JC, Massaquoi  M, Matanock  A, Dahn  B, et al. Evolution of ebola virus disease from exotic infection to global health priority, Liberia, mid-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:57884. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brooks  JC, Pinto  M, Gill  A, Hills  KE, Murthy  S, Podgornik  MN, et al. Incident management systems and building emergency management capacity during the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic— Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:2834. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. World Health Organization. Joint External Evaluation tool: International Health Regulations (2005) [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  25. Pan American Health Organization. Epidemiological Alert: neurological syndrome, congenital malformations, and Zika virus infection. Implications for public health in the Americas, 1 December 2015 [cited 2017 Mar 27].
  26. Oussayef  NL, Pillai  SK, Honein  MA, Ben Beard  C, Bell  B, Boyle  CA, et al. Zika virus—10 public health achievements in 2016 and future priorities. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;65:14828. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. World Health Organization. Fifth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  28. World Health Organization. Yellow fever—Angola [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  29. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, situation report no. 20 (8 November 2016) [cited 2017 Mar 2].
  30. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Haiti: Hurricane Matthew, situation report no. 25 (25 November 2016) [cited 2017 Mar 2].

Main Article

Page created: November 20, 2017
Page updated: November 20, 2017
Page reviewed: November 20, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.