Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 10—October 2018

Human Pegivirus in Patients with Encephalitis of Unclear Etiology, Poland

Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Karol PerlejewskiComments to Author , Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Agnieszka Pollak, Marta Popiel, Kamila Caraballo Cortés, Marcin Paciorek, Andrzej Horban, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Marek Radkowski, and Tomasz Laskus
Author affiliations: Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (I. Bukowska-Ośko, K. Perlejewski, A. Pawełczyk, M. Rydzanicz, M. Popiel, K. Caraballo Cortés, M. Paciorek, A. Horban, T. Dzieciątkowski, M. Radkowski, T. Laskus); Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Kajetany, Poland (A. Pollak)

Main Article

Figure 3

Comparison of E2 region human pegivirus sequences amplified from serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 3 patients with encephalitis of unclear origin, Poland, 2012–2015. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of reads representing a given sequence. Shading indicates sequences unique to cerebrospinal fluid. Nucleotide numbering follows the reference strain published by Linnen et al (2) (GenBank accession no. NC_001710.1). C, cerebrospinal fluid; S, serum.

Figure 3. Comparison of E2 region human pegivirus sequences amplified from serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 3 patients with encephalitis of unclear origin, Poland, 2012–2015. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of reads representing a given sequence. Shading indicates sequences unique to cerebrospinal fluid. Nucleotide numbering follows the reference strain published by Linnen et al (2) (GenBank accession no. NC_001710.1). C, cerebrospinal fluid; S, serum.

Main Article

  1. Simons  JN, Leary  TP, Dawson  GJ, Pilot-Matias  TJ, Muerhoff  AS, Schlauder  GG, et al. Isolation of novel virus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis. Nat Med. 1995;1:5649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Linnen  J, Wages  J Jr, Zhang-Keck  ZY, Fry  KE, Krawczynski  KZ, Alter  H, et al. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science. 1996;271:5058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Laskus  T, Radkowski  M, Wang  LF, Vargas  H, Rakela  J. Lack of evidence for hepatitis G virus replication in the livers of patients coinfected with hepatitis C and G viruses. J Virol. 1997;71:78046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pessoa  MG, Terrault  NA, Detmer  J, Kolberg  J, Collins  M, Hassoba  HM, et al. Quantitation of hepatitis G and C viruses in the liver: evidence that hepatitis G virus is not hepatotropic. Hepatology. 1998;27:87780. Scholar
  5. Adams  MJ, King  AM, Carstens  EB. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2013). Arch Virol. 2013;158:202330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Mohr  EL, Stapleton  JT. GB virus type C interactions with HIV: the role of envelope glycoproteins. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:75768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Mphahlele  MJ, Lau  GK, Carman  WF. HGV: the identification, biology and prevalence of an orphan virus. Liver. 1998;18:14355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Xiang  J, Wünschmann  S, Diekema  DJ, Klinzman  D, Patrick  KD, George  SL, et al. Effect of coinfection with GB virus C on survival among patients with HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:70714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattarai  N, Stapleton  JT. GB virus C: the good boy virus? Trends Microbiol. 2012;20:12430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Nakamura  S, Takagi  T, Matsuda  T. Hepatitis G virus RNA in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 1997;98:10512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Krajden  M, Yu  A, Braybrook  H, Lai  AS, Mak  A, Chow  R, et al. GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case control study. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:288592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Leyssen  P, De Clercq  E, Neyts  J. Perspectives for the treatment of infections with Flaviviridae. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13:6782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Granerod  J, Crowcroft  NS. The epidemiology of acute encephalitis. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2007;17:40628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Granerod  J, Tam  CC, Crowcroft  NS, Davies  NW, Borchert  M, Thomas  SL. Challenge of the unknown. A systematic review of acute encephalitis in non-outbreak situations. Neurology. 2010;75:92432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kriesel  JD, Hobbs  MR, Jones  BB, Milash  B, Nagra  RM, Fischer  KF. Deep sequencing for the detection of virus-like sequences in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis: detection of GBV-C in human brain. PLoS One. 2012;7:e31886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu  Z, Zhang  Y, Wei  F, Xu  M, Mou  D, Zhang  T, et al. Detection of GB virus C genomic sequence in the cerebrospinal fluid of a HIV-infected patient in China: a case report and literature review. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144:10612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fridholm  H, Østergaard Sørensen  L, Rosenstierne  MW, Nielsen  H, Sellebjerg  F, Bengård Andersen  Å, et al. Human pegivirus detected in a patient with severe encephalitis using a metagenomic pan-virus array. J Clin Virol. 2016;77:58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Popiel  M, Perlejewski  K, Bednarska  A, Dzieciątkowski  T, Paciorek  M, Lipowski  D, et al. Viral etiologies in adult patients with encephalitis in Poland: A prospective single center study. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0178481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Laskus  T, Radkowski  M, Wang  LF, Vargas  H, Rakela  J. Detection of hepatitis G virus replication sites by using highly strand-specific Tth-based reverse transcriptase PCR. J Virol. 1998;72:30725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith  DB, Basaras  M, Frost  S, Haydon  D, Cuceanu  N, Prescott  L, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:76980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Laskus  T, Wilkinson  J, Gallegos-Orozco  JF, Radkowski  M, Adair  DM, Nowicki  M, et al. Analysis of hepatitis C virus quasispecies transmission and evolution in patients infected through blood transfusion. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:76476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin  M. Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads. EMBnet. 2011;17:10–2 2011.
  23. Hannon Laboratory. FastX Toolkit. 2015 [cited 2018 Jul 30].
  24. Larkin  MA, Blackshields  G, Brown  NP, Chenna  R, McGettigan  PA, McWilliam  H, et al. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics. 2007;23:29478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rozas  J, Ferrer-Mata  A, Sánchez-DelBarrio  JC, Guirao-Rico  S, Librado  P, Ramos-Onsins  SE, et al. DnaSP 6: DNA sequence polymorphism analysis of large data sets. Mol Biol Evol. 2017;34:3299302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Zuker  M. Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:340615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jespersen  MC, Peters  B, Nielsen  M, Marcatili  P. BepiPred-2.0: improving sequence-based B-cell epitope prediction using conformational epitopes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45(W1):W249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Simons  JN, Desai  SM, Schultz  DE, Lemon  SM, Mushahwar  IK. Translation initiation in GB viruses A and C: evidence for internal ribosome entry and implications for genome organization. J Virol. 1996;70:612635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bednar  MM, Sturdevant  CB, Tompkins  LA, Arrildt  KT, Dukhovlinova  E, Kincer  LP, et al. Compartmentalization, viral evolution, and viral latency of HIV in the CNS. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2015;12:26271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Radkowski  M, Wilkinson  J, Nowicki  M, Adair  D, Vargas  H, Ingui  C, et al. Search for hepatitis C virus negative-strand RNA sequences and analysis of viral sequences in the central nervous system: evidence of replication. J Virol. 2002;76:6008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Forton  DM, Karayiannis  P, Mahmud  N, Taylor-Robinson  SD, Thomas  HC. Identification of unique hepatitis C virus quasispecies in the central nervous system and comparative analysis of internal translational efficiency of brain, liver, and serum variants. J Virol. 2004;78:517083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jørgensen  GE, Hammarin  AL, Bratt  G, Grandien  M, Flaegstad  T, Johnsen  JI. Identification of a unique BK virus variant in the CNS of a patient with AIDS. J Med Virol. 2003;70:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Radkowski  M, Kubicka  J, Kisiel  E, Cianciara  J, Nowicki  M, Rakela  J, et al. Detection of active hepatitis C virus and hepatitis G virus/GB virus C replication in bone marrow in human subjects. Blood. 2000;95:39869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Tucker  TJ, Smuts  HE, Eedes  C, Knobel  GD, Eickhaus  P, Robson  SC, et al. Evidence that the GBV-C/hepatitis G virus is primarily a lymphotropic virus. J Med Virol. 2000;61:528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chivero  ET, Bhattarai  N, Rydze  RT, Winters  MA, Holodniy  M, Stapleton  JT. Human pegivirus RNA is found in multiple blood mononuclear cells in vivo and serum-derived viral RNA-containing particles are infectious in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:130719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chivero  ET, Stapleton  JT. Tropism of human pegivirus (formerly known as GB virus C/hepatitis G virus) and host immunomodulation: insights into a highly successful viral infection. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:152132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hickey  WF. Leukocyte traffic in the central nervous system: the participants and their roles. Semin Immunol. 1999;11:12537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hickey  WF, Vass  K, Lassmann  H. Bone marrow-derived elements in the central nervous system: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural survey of rat chimeras. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992;51:24656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Unger  ER, Sung  JH, Manivel  JC, Chenggis  ML, Blazar  BR, Krivit  W. Male donor-derived cells in the brains of female sex-mismatched bone marrow transplant recipients: a Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993;52:46070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hickey  WF, Hsu  BL, Kimura  H. T-lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system. J Neurosci Res. 1991;28:25460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Knopf  PM, Harling-Berg  CJ, Cserr  HF, Basu  D, Sirulnick  EJ, Nolan  SC, et al. Antigen-dependent intrathecal antibody synthesis in the normal rat brain: tissue entry and local retention of antigen-specific B cells. J Immunol. 1998;161:692701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Zheng  J, Gendelman  HE. The HIV-1 associated dementia complex: a metabolic encephalopathy fueled by viral replication in mononuclear phagocytes. Curr Opin Neurol. 1997;10:31925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Davies  NW, Brown  LJ, Gonde  J, Irish  D, Robinson  RO, Swan  AV, et al. Factors influencing PCR detection of viruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CNS infections. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Radkowski  M, Przyjalkowski  W, Lipowski  D, Wang  LF, Laskus  T. Lack of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus sequences in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with central nervous system infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1998;30:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaiser  R. Tick-borne encephalitis: Clinical findings and prognosis in adults. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2012;162:23943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Růžek  D, Dobler  G, Donoso Mantke  O. Tick-borne encephalitis: pathogenesis and clinical implications. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2010;8:22332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Agol  VI. The 5′-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes. Adv Virus Res. 1991;40:10380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dockter  J, Evans  CF, Tishon  A, Oldstone  MB. Competitive selection in vivo by a cell for one variant over another: implications for RNA virus quasispecies in vivo. J Virol. 1996;70:1799803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. McLinden  JH, Kaufman  TM, Xiang  J, Chang  Q, Klinzman  D, Engel  AM, et al. Characterization of an immunodominant antigenic site on GB virus C glycoprotein E2 that is involved in cell binding. J Virol. 2006;80:1213140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Domingo  E, Sheldon  J, Perales  C. Viral quasispecies evolution. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012;76:159216.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: September 14, 2018
Page updated: September 14, 2018
Page reviewed: September 14, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.