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Volume 24, Number 3—March 2018

Epidemiology and Molecular Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, South Africa, 2012–2015

Maimuna CarrimComments to Author , Nicole Wolter, Alvaro J. Benitez, Stefano Tempia, Mignon du Plessis, Sibongile Walaza, Fahima Moosa, Maureen H. Diaz, Bernard J. Wolff, Florette K. Treurnicht, Orienka Hellferscee, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Cheryl Cohen, Jonas M. Winchell, and Anne von Gottberg
Author affiliations: National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa (M. Carrim, N. Wolter, S. Tempia, M. du Plessis, S. Walaza, F. Moosa, F.K. Treurnicht, O. Hellferscee, C. Cohen, A. von Gottberg); University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (N. Wolter, M. du Plessis, S. Walaza, E. Variava, C. Cohen, A. von Gottberg); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A.J. Benitez, S. Tempia, M.H. Diaz, B.J. Wolff, J.M. Winchell); Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Hospitals, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (H. Dawood); Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Pietermaritzburg (H. Dawood); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg (H. Dawood); Klerksdorp-Tshepong Hospital Complex, Klerksdorp, South Africa (E. Variava); Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Johannesburg (E. Variava)

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Table 2

Factors associated with patients being hospitalized for ILI and SRI associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, Klerksdorp and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, June 2012–May 2015*

ILI, no. (%)
SRI, no. (%)
Univariate analysis
Multivariable analysis†
OR (95% CI)
p value
aOR (95%CI)
p value
Age <5 y 11/27 (40.7) 38/73 (52.1) 1.6 (0.6–3.9) 0.317 7.1 (1.7–28.7) 0.006
Female sex
16/17 (59.3)
38/72 (52.8)
0.8 (0.3–1.9)

Crowding, no. persons/room
<2 18/27 (66.7) 49/72 (68.1) Reference NA
3–4 7/27 (25.4) 19/72 (26.4) 1.0 (0.4–2.7) 0.996
2/27 (7.4)
4/72 (5.6)
0.7 (0.1–4.4)

Duration of symptoms >4 d 7/26 (26.9) 37/69 (53.6) 3.1 (1.2–8.4) 0.023 3.8 (1.1–14.1) 0.046
HIV infection 2/23 (8.7) 32/62 (51.6) 11.2 (2.4–51.9) 0.002 23.8 (4.1–138.2) <0.001
Any underlying medical condition‡ 3/27 (11.1) 10/72 (13.9) 1.3 (0.3–5.1) 0.716
Any viral co-infection§ 13/27 (48.1) 47/73 (64.4) 1.9 (0.8–4.7) 0.144

*Bold indicates statistical significance. aOR, adjusted OR; ILI, influenza-like illness; NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio; SRI, severe respiratory illness.
†Only variables found to be statistically significant (p<0.2) in univariate analysis were assessed in the multivariable model.
‡Underlying conditions defined as previously diagnosed chronic conditions including asthma, chronic lung diseases, cirrhosis or liver failure, chronic renal failure, heart failure, valvular heart disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, burns, kwashiorkor or marasmus, nephrotic syndrome, spinal cord injury, seizure disorder, emphysema, and cancer, or history of immunosuppressive therapy or splenectomy.
§Viruses tested were influenza types A and B, adenovirus, enterovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus types 1–3.

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Page created: February 15, 2018
Page updated: February 15, 2018
Page reviewed: February 15, 2018
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