Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 3—March 2018
Research Letter

Evidence for Previously Unidentified Sexual Transmission of Protozoan Parasites

Clara Crespillo-Andujar1, Marta Díaz-Menéndez1Comments to Author , and Marta Mora-Rillo
Author affiliations: National Referral Unit for Tropical and Travel Medicine, Hospital Universitario la Paz-Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (C. Crespillo-Andujar, M. Díaz-Menéndez); Hospital Universitario la Paz-Carlos III, Madrid (M. Mora-Rillo)

Main Article


Results of literature search for reports of parasites found in semen samples

Parasite (reference) Method for parasite identification Type of study Evidence of sexual transmission Evidence of causing infertility
Entamoeba hystolytica (2) Microscopy Case report In humans In humans
Schistosoma haematobium (3) Microscopy Cohort study No evidence In humans
Trichomonas vaginalis (4) PCR Cohort study In humans In humans
Trypanosoma cruzi (5) PCR Cohort study Experimental mouse model In animals
Toxoplasma gondii (6) Microscopy Cohort study Experimental sheep model In humans

Main Article

  1. Salam  AP, Horby  PW. The breadth of viruses in human semen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:19224. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ozdemir  E, Keleştemur  N, Kaplan  M. Trichomonas vaginalis as a rare cause of male factor infertility at a hospital in East Anatolia. Andrologia. 2011;43:2835. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hines  LE. Entamoeba histolytica in seminal fluid in a case of amoebic dysentery. JAMA. 1923;81:2745. DOIGoogle Scholar
  4. Leutscher  P, Ramarokoto  CE, Reimert  C, Feldmeier  H, et al. Community-based study of genital schistosomiasis in men from Madagascar. Lancet. 2000; 8;355(9198):117–8. DOIGoogle Scholar
  5. Araujo  PF, Almeida  AB, Pimentel  CF, Silva  AR, Sousa  A, Valente  SA, et al. Sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis in humans: a new potential pandemic route for Chagas parasites. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:43746. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Disko  R, Braveny  I, Vogel  P. [Studies on the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the human ejaculate] [in German]. Z Tropenmed Parasitol. 1971;22:3916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Martínez-García  F, Regadera  J, Mayer  R, Sanchez  S, Nistal  M. Protozoan infections in the male genital tract. J Urol. 1996;156:3409. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Shiadeh  MN, Niyyati  M, Fallahi  S, Rostami  A. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:46977. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory identification of parasitic diseases of public health concern. Schistosomiasis infection. Dec 18, 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 15]
  10. Leutscher  P, Ravaoalimalala  VE, Raharisolo  C, Ramarokoto  CE, Rasendramino  M, Raobelison  A, et al. Clinical findings in female genital schistosomiasis in Madagascar. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;3:32732. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. World Health Organization. Global incidence and prevalence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections—2008. Geneva: The Organization; 2012 [cited 2017 Nov 6].

Main Article

1These first authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: February 16, 2018
Page updated: February 16, 2018
Page reviewed: February 16, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.