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Volume 25, Number 1—January 2019

Seroepidemiology of Parechovirus A3 Neutralizing Antibodies, Australia, the Netherlands, and United States

Eveliina Karelehto, Lieke Brouwer, Kimberley Benschop, Jen Kok, Kerri Basile, Brendan McMullan, William Rawlinson, Julian Druce, Suellen Nicholson, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Christopher Harrison, Kamani Lankachandra, Hetty van Eijk, Gerrit Koen, Menno de Jong, Dasja Pajkrt, and Katja C. WolthersComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (E. Karelehto, L. Brouwer, H. van Eijk, G. Koen, M. de Jong, D. Pajkrt, K.C. Wolthers); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (K. Benschop); Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia (J. Kok, K. Basile); Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (B. McMullan); Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia (W. Rawlinson); Doherty Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (J. Druce, S. Nicholson); Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA (R. Selvarangan, C. Harrison); Truman Medical Center, Kansas City (K. Lankachandra)

Main Article

Table 2

Association between seropositivity and location–timepoint, gender, and age by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models in study of parechovirus A3 neutralizing antibodies, Australia, the Netherlands, and United States*

Univariate model

Multivariate model
Odds ratio (95% CI)
p value
Odds ratio (95% CI)
p value
Location, years 0.002 <0.001
Netherlands, 2006–2007 1.124 (0.693–1.824) 1.078 (0.658–1.764)
Netherlands, 2015–2016 1.026 (0.635–1.658) 0.963 (0.591–1.568)
Missouri, USA, 2011–2012 0.790 (0.496–1.260) 0.725 (0.451–1.166)
Missouri, USA, 2017 0.906 (0.585–1.403) 0.376 (0.189–0.748)
Victoria, Australia, 2011–2012 0.644 (0.406–1.023) 0.642 (0.400–1.030)
Victoria, Australia, 2015–2016 0.904 (0.563–1.451) 0.868 (0.536–1.406)
New South Wales, Australia, 2011–2012 2.222 (1.354–3.647) 2.247 (1.358–3.718)
New South Wales, Australia, 2015–2016†


Sex‡ 0.193 0.309
F 0.840 (0.646–1.092) 0.868 (0.661–1.140)


Age, y <0.001 <0.001
1–5† 1 1
6–29 2.938 (1.954–4.419) 2.782 (1.821–4.251)
≥30 3.248 (2.160–4.883) 3.081 (2.004–4.738)

*Boldface indicates a statistically significant result. Seropositivity was determined as a neutralizing antibody titer ≥1:8. Children <1 years of age were excluded.
†Reference category.
‡Information on sex not available for US 2017 adult samples.

Main Article

Page created: December 17, 2018
Page updated: December 17, 2018
Page reviewed: December 17, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.