Association of Increased Receptor-Binding Avidity of Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses with Escape from Antibody-Based Immunity and Enhanced Zoonotic Potential
Joshua E. Sealy, Tahir Yaqub, Thomas P. Peacock1
, Pengxiang Chang, Burcu Ermetal, Anabel Clements, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Arslan Mehboob2
, Holly Shelton, Juliet E. Bryant, Rod S. Daniels, John W. McCauley, Munir Iqbal
, and Jean-Remy Royal Veterinary CollegeLondonUKSadeyen
Author affiliations: The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK (J.E. Sealy, T.P. Peacock, P. Chang, A. Clements, J.-R. Sadeyen, H. Shelton, M. Iqbal); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (T. Yaqub, A. Mehboob); The Francis Crick Institute, London (B. Ermetal, R.S. Daniels, J.W. McCauley); Fondation Mérieux, Lyon, France (J.E. Bryant)
Figure 6. Replication kinetics of influenza A(H9N2) viruses from Pakistan in CKC, MDCK, and MDCK-SIAT1 cells. A, C, E) Replication in CKC, MDCK, and MDCK-SIAT1 cells of UDL-01/08 viruses containing A/T/V180 substitutions; B, D, F) replication in CKC, MDCK, and MDCK-SIAT1 cells of SKP-827/16 viruses containing A/T/V180 substitutions. Virus supernatants were titrated by plaque assay in MDCK cells by using culture supernatants harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours postinoculation. One-way analysis of variance with multiple comparisons was used to compare virus titers from each time point. A) CKC growth curve: A/chicken/UDL-01/2008 A/T/V/180; B) CKC growth curve: A/chicken/Pakistan/SKP-827/2016 A/T/V/180; C) MDCK growth curve: A/chicken/UDL-01/2008 A/T/V/180; D) MDCK growth curve: A/chicken/Pakistan/SKP-827/2016 A/T/V/180; E) SIAT1 growth curve: A/chicken/Pakistan/UDL-01/2008 A/T/V/180; F) SIAT1 growth curve: A/chicken/Pakistan/ SKP-827/2016 A/T/V/180. *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; ****p<0.0001).
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