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Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019

Anthrax Epizootic in Wildlife, Bwabwata National Park, Namibia, 2017

Caitlin M. CossaboomComments to Author , Siegfried Khaiseb, Bernard Haufiku, Puumue Katjiuanjo, Apollinaris Kannyinga, Kaiser Mbai, Thompson Shuro, Jonas Hausiku, Annety Likando, Rebekka Shikesho, Kofi Nyarko, Leigh Ann Miller, Simon Agolory, Antonio R. Vieira, Johanna S. Salzer, William A. Bower, Lindsay Campbell, Cari B. Kolton, Chung Marston, Joy Gary, Brigid C. Bollweg, Sherif R. Zaki, Alex Hoffmaster, and Henry Walke
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (C.M. Cossaboom, A.R. Vieira, J.S. Salzer, W.A. Bower, C.B. Kolton, C. Marston, J. Gary, B.C. Bollweg, S.R. Zaki, A. Hoffmaster, H. Walke); Republic of Namibia Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry, Windhoek, Namibia (S. Khaiseb, K. Mbai, T. Shuro); Republic of Namibia Ministry of Health and Social Services, Windhoek (B. Haufiku, P. Katjiuanjo, A. Likando, R. Shikesho, K. Nyarko); Republic of Namibia Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek (A. Kannyinga, J. Hausiku); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Windhoek (L.A. Miller, S. Agolory); University of Florida, Vero Beach, Florida, USA (L. Campbell)

Main Article


Summary of laboratory diagnostic testing results, by carcass sampled, after an anthrax epizootic in wildlife, Bwabwata National Park, Namibia, 2017.

Carcass ID Species AAD Rapid Test Culture LRN rRT-PCR Immunohistochemistry
Cell wall Capsule
001 Cape buffalo + + NA +
002 Cape buffalo† NA
005 Cape buffalo + + NA + +
007 Hippopotamus + + + + +
008 Hippopotamus + + + +
009 Hippopotamus + + + + +
012 Hippopotamus + + + NA NA

*AAD Rapid Test, InBios Active Anthrax Detect Rapid Test (InBios,; LRN rRT-PCR, Laboratory Response Network real-time reverse transcription PCR; NA, not available; +, positive; –, negative.
†This Cape buffalo carcass served as a negative control. The animal died as a result of a vehicle collision, and anthrax infection was not suspected as cause of death.

Main Article

Page created: April 17, 2019
Page updated: April 17, 2019
Page reviewed: April 17, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.