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Volume 26, Number 12—December 2020

Equine-Like H3 Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds, Chile

Nicolas Bravo-Vasquez1, Jiangwei Yao1, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm1Comments to Author , Victoria Meliopoulos, Pamela Freiden, Bridgett Sharp, Leonardo Estrada, Amy Davis, Sean Cherry, Brandi Livingston, Angela Danner, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, and Christopher Hamilton-WestComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA (N. Bravo-Vasquez); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J. Yao); University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (P. Jimenez-Bluhm, C. Hamilton-West); St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (V. Meliopoulos, P. Freiden, B. Sharp, L. Estrada, A. Davis, S. Cherry, B. Livingston, A. Danner, S. Schultz-Cherry)

Main Article

Table 1

Divergence dates per gene segment for equine-like H3 avian influenza viruses in wild birds, Chile*

Gene segment Equine-like, no. positive/no. tested† GTR relaxed GTR strict HKY relaxed HKY strict
HA 6/8 1916 (1883–1941) 1918 (1909–1927) 1917 (1886–1939) 1918 (1909–1927)
PA 19/26 1948 (1938–1956) 1946 (1941–1950) 1948 (1935–1957) 1946 (1941–1950)
NP 24/29 1947 (1936–1955) 1945 (1940–1950) 1947 (1936–1955) 1945 (1939–1949)
NS1 11/27 NA NA NA NA

*Estimated divergence dates between these sequences from Chile and the 1963 H3N8 equine influenza sequences were estimated by using BEAST version 1.10 ( with GTR or HKY substitution models and strict or uncorrelated relaxed clocks. Estimated dates are reported with 95% credible interval dates in parentheses. Because NS1 sequences did not exhibit molecular clock–like behavior, the divergence date could not be estimated. GTR, generalized time reversible; HA, hemagglutinin; HKY, Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano; NA, not available; NP, nucleoprotein; NS1, nonstructural protein 1; PA, polymerase acidic.
†Number of sequences from Chile for the gene segments that have high homology to the 1963 H3N8 equine influenza virus.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: July 27, 2020
Page updated: November 19, 2020
Page reviewed: November 19, 2020
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