Tuberculosis among Children and Adolescents at HIV Treatment Centers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Anna M. Mandalakas1
, Alexander W. Kay1
, Jason M. Bacha, Tara Devezin, Rachel Golin, Katherine R. Simon, Dilsher Dhillon, Sandile Dlamini, Andrew DiNardo, Mogo Matshaba, Jill Sanders, Lineo Thahane, Pauline M. Amuge, Saeed Ahmed, Moorine P. Sekadde, Neway G. Fida, Bhekumusa Lukhele, Nodumo Chidah, David Damba, Joseph Mhango, Moses Chodota, Makhorong Matsoso, Angelina Kayabu, Richard S. Wanless, and Gordon E. Schutze
Author affiliations: Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA (A.M. Manadalakas, A.W. Kay, J.M. Bacha, T. Devezin, K.R. Simon, D. Dhillon, S. Dlamini, A. DiNardo, M. Matshaba, J. Sanders, L. Thahane, S. Ahmed, N. Chidah, D. Damba, M. Chodota, M. Matsoso, A. Kayabu, R.S. Wanless, G.E. Schutze); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (A.M. Manadalakas, A.W. Kay, J.M. Bacha, T. Devezin, D. Dhillon, A. DiNardo, B. Lukhele, R.S. Wanless, G.E. Schutze); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland (A.W. Kay, S. Dlamini, B. Lukhele); Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation Tanzania, Mbeya, Tanzania (J.M. Bacha); US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA (R. Golin); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi (K.R. Simon, S. Ahmed, J. Mhango); Technical Support to PEPFAR Programs in the Southern Africa Region, Lilongwe (K.R. Simon, S. Ahmed, J. Mhango); Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence, Gaborone, Botswana (M. Matshaba, N. Chidah); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho (J. Sanders, L. Thahane, M. Matsoso); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Uganda, Kampala, Uganda (P.M. Amuge, D. Damba); National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Kampala, Uganda (M.P. Sekkade); US Agency for International Development, Pretoria, South Africa (N.G. Fida); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Tanzania, Mwanza, Tanzania (M. Chodota, A. Kayabu)
Figure 1. Incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected children and adolescents, 2013–2017. The age at start of TB treatment is plotted as a smoothed line and histogram against the probability of TB diagnosis on the basis of the prevalence of that age within the overall cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. The data are presented combined and stratified by HIV treatment center.
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