Tuberculosis among Children and Adolescents at HIV Treatment Centers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Anna M. Mandalakas1
, Alexander W. Kay1
, Jason M. Bacha, Tara Devezin, Rachel Golin, Katherine R. Simon, Dilsher Dhillon, Sandile Dlamini, Andrew DiNardo, Mogo Matshaba, Jill Sanders, Lineo Thahane, Pauline M. Amuge, Saeed Ahmed, Moorine P. Sekadde, Neway G. Fida, Bhekumusa Lukhele, Nodumo Chidah, David Damba, Joseph Mhango, Moses Chodota, Makhorong Matsoso, Angelina Kayabu, Richard S. Wanless, and Gordon E. Schutze
Author affiliations: Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA (A.M. Manadalakas, A.W. Kay, J.M. Bacha, T. Devezin, K.R. Simon, D. Dhillon, S. Dlamini, A. DiNardo, M. Matshaba, J. Sanders, L. Thahane, S. Ahmed, N. Chidah, D. Damba, M. Chodota, M. Matsoso, A. Kayabu, R.S. Wanless, G.E. Schutze); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (A.M. Manadalakas, A.W. Kay, J.M. Bacha, T. Devezin, D. Dhillon, A. DiNardo, B. Lukhele, R.S. Wanless, G.E. Schutze); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland (A.W. Kay, S. Dlamini, B. Lukhele); Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation Tanzania, Mbeya, Tanzania (J.M. Bacha); US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA (R. Golin); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi (K.R. Simon, S. Ahmed, J. Mhango); Technical Support to PEPFAR Programs in the Southern Africa Region, Lilongwe (K.R. Simon, S. Ahmed, J. Mhango); Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence, Gaborone, Botswana (M. Matshaba, N. Chidah); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho (J. Sanders, L. Thahane, M. Matsoso); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Uganda, Kampala, Uganda (P.M. Amuge, D. Damba); National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Kampala, Uganda (M.P. Sekkade); US Agency for International Development, Pretoria, South Africa (N.G. Fida); Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation Tanzania, Mwanza, Tanzania (M. Chodota, A. Kayabu)
Figure 2. Probablities of specific outcomes for TB in HIV-infected children and adolescents, 2013–2017. A) Probability (with 95% CIs) of outcomes stratified by age at start of TB treatment. B) Instantaneous odds ratios for death at each age. The odds ratio reflects the change in odds of death according to age at start of TB treatment. LTFU-TO, lost to follow-up or transferred out; TB, tuberculosis.
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