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Volume 26, Number 5—May 2020

Possible Transmission Mechanisms of Mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in High HIV Prevalence Country, Botswana

Yeonsoo Baik1, Chawangwa Modongo, Patrick K. Moonan, Eleanor S. Click, James L. Tobias, Rosanna Boyd, Alyssa Finlay, John E. Oeltmann, Sanghyuk S. Shin2Comments to Author , and Nicola M. Zetola2
Author affiliations: University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA (Y. Baik); Botswana–Upenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana (C. Modongo, N.M. Zetola); US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (P.K. Moonan, E.S. Click, J.L. Tobias, R. Boyd, A. Finlay, J.E. Oeltmann); US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Gaborone (R. Boyd, A. Finlay); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA (S.S Shin)

Main Article

Table 2

Characteristics of 34 patients with mixed-strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (the Kopanyo Study), Botswana, 2012–2016

Characteristic No. (%)
Primary residential site
Gaborone 22 (65)
Ghanzi District 7 (21)
Other Botswana 2 (6)
Missing residential address
3 (9)
HIV infection status
Positive 18 (53)
Negative 14 (41)
2 (6)
Transmission mechanism
Recently acquired + recently acquired 4 (12)
Recently acquired + remotely acquired 23 (68)
Remotely acquired + remotely acquired
7 (21)
HIV infection & transmission mechanism
Recently acquired + recently acquired Positive: 1 (6); negative: 2 (14)
Recently acquired + remotely acquired Positive: 12 (66); negative: 10 (72)
Remotely acquired + remotely acquired Positive: 5 (28); negative: 2 (14)

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: April 16, 2020
Page updated: April 16, 2020
Page reviewed: April 16, 2020
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