Volume 26, Number 8—August 2020
Factors Associated with Prescription of Antimicrobial Drugs for Dogs and Cats, United Kingdom, 2014–2016
|Category||β||SE||OR (95% CI)||p value|
|Main presenting complaint|
|Kidney disease||−0.20||0.07||0.82 (0.71–0.94)||0.01|
|Other unwell||−0.23||0.04||0.79 (0.73–0.85)||<0.01|
|Genetic breed group (31)|
|Companion and equine||−0.01||0.18||1.00 (0.70–1.41)||0.98|
|Companion and large||0.10||0.17||1.10 (0.80–1.53)||0.56|
|Employed RCVS AVP†|
|Cats per km2 (30)|
|Male sex and age|
|Linear age interaction||−0.10||0.03||0.91 (0.85–0.97)||<0.01|
|Quadratic age interaction||−0.10||0.02||0.91 (0.88–0.94)||<0.01|
|Cubic age interaction||0.03||0.02||1.03 (1.00–1.06)||0.11|
|Male sex and main presenting complaint|
|Kidney disease||−0.26||0.11||0.77 (0.62–0.96)||0.02|
|Other unwell||0.17||0.05||1.19 (1.07–1.32)||<0.01|
*n = 36,521/111,139 sick consultations. Random effect variance (± SD): animal 0.50 (0.70), site 0.06 (0.25), practice 0.08 (0.28). Significant (p<0.05) results are displayed in boldface. NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio;
RCVS, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.
†RCVS Advanced Veterinary Practitioner and/or specialist status.
- Rantala M, Lahti E, Kuhalampil J, Pesonen S, Järvinen AK, Saijonmaa-Koulumies , et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in dogs given antibiotics for chronic dermatological disorders, compared with non-treated control dogs. Acta Vet Scand. 2004;45:37–45.
- Trott DJ, Filippich LJ, Bensink JC, Downs MT, McKenzie SE, Townsend KM, et al. Canine model for investigating the impact of oral enrofloxacin on commensal coliforms and colonization with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:439–43.
- Cantón R, Bryan J. Global antimicrobial resistance: from surveillance to stewardship. Part 1: surveillance and risk factors for resistance. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10:1269–71.
- Cuny C, Wieler LH, Witte W. Livestock-associated MRSA: the impact on humans. Antibiotics (Basel). 2015;4:521–43.
- Zhang X-F, Doi Y, Huang X, Li HY, Zhong LL, Zeng KJ, et al. Possible transmission of mcr-1-harboring Escherichia coli between companion animals and human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:1679–81.
- Guardabassi L, Schwarz S, Lloyd DH. Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:321–32.
- Guardabassi L, Loeber ME, Jacobson A. Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:23–7.
- Johnson JR, Johnston B, Clabots CR, Kuskowski MA, Roberts E, DebRoy C. Virulence genotypes and phylogenetic background of Escherichia coli serogroup O6 isolates from humans, dogs, and cats. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:417–22.
- World Health Organization. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance [cited 2001 Jun 16]. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/193736/9789241509763_eng.pdf
- Altiner A, Wilm S, Wegscheider K, Sielk M, Brockmann S, Fuchs A, et al. Fluoroquinolones to treat uncomplicated acute cough in primary care: predictors for unjustified prescribing of antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1521–5.
- Hawker JI, Smith S, Smith GE, Morbey R, Johnson AP, Fleming DM, et al. Trends in antibiotic prescribing in primary care for clinical syndromes subject to national recommendations to reduce antibiotic resistance, UK 1995-2011: analysis of a large database of primary care consultations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69:3423–30.
- McCullough AR, Rathbone J, Parekh S, Hoffmann TC, Del Mar CB. Not in my backyard: a systematic review of clinicians’ knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70:2465–73.
- McKay R, Mah A, Law MR, McGrail K, Patrick DM. Systematic review of factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:4106–18.
- Welsh CE, Parkin TDH, Marshall JF. Use of large-scale veterinary data for the investigation of antimicrobial prescribing practices in equine medicine. Equine Vet J. 2017;49:425–32.
- Hughes LA, Williams N, Clegg P, Callaby R, Nuttall T, Coyne K, et al. Cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial prescribing patterns in UK small animal veterinary practice. Prev Vet Med. 2012;104:309–16.
- De Briyne N, Atkinson J, Pokludová L, Borriello SP, Price S. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe. Vet Rec. 2013;173:475.
- Mateus AL, Brodbelt DC, Barber N, Stärk KD. Qualitative study of factors associated with antimicrobial usage in seven small animal veterinary practices in the UK. Prev Vet Med. 2014;117:68–78.
- O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Approaches to canine health surveillance. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2014;1:2.
- Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Jones PH, Menacere T, Heayns B, Wardeh M, Newman J, et al. Small animal disease surveillance. Vet Rec. 2015;177:591–4.
- Radford AD, Noble PJ, Coyne KP, Gaskell RM, Jones PH, Bryan JG, et al. Antibacterial prescribing patterns in small animal veterinary practice identified via SAVSNET: the small animal veterinary surveillance network. Vet Rec. 2011;169:310.
- Buckland EL, O’Neill D, Summers J, Mateus A, Church D, Redmond L, et al. Characterisation of antimicrobial usage in cats and dogs attending UK primary care companion animal veterinary practices. Vet Rec. 2016;179:489.
- Singleton DA, Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Dawson S, Jones PH, Noble PJM, Pinchbeck GL, et al. Patterns of antimicrobial agent prescription in a sentinel population of canine and feline veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. Vet J. 2017;224:18–24.
- Burke S, Black V, Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Radford A, Hibbert A, Tasker S. Use of cefovecin in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices as recorded in electronic health records. J Feline Med Surg. 2017;19:687–92.
- World Health Organization. WHO list of critically important antimicrobials (WHO CIA list) [cited 2001 Jun 19]. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/antimicrobial-resistance/cia
- German AJ, Halladay LJ, Noble PJ. First-choice therapy for dogs presenting with diarrhoea in clinical practice. Vet Rec. 2010;167:810–4.
- Jones PH, Dawson S, Gaskell RM, Coyne KP, Tierney A, Setzkorn C, et al. Surveillance of diarrhoea in small animal practice through the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET). Vet J. 2014;201:412–8.
- Day MJ, Horzinek MC, Schultz RD, Squires RA; Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA). WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract. 2016;57:E1–45.
- Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, Noble PM, Jones PH, Menacere T, Buchan I, Reynolds S, et al. Demographics of dogs, cats, and rabbits attending veterinary practices in Great Britain as recorded in their electronic health records. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:218.
- vonholdt BM, Pollinger JP, Lohmueller KE, Han E, Parker HG, Quignon P, et al. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Nature. 2010;464:898–902.
- Aegerter J, Fouracre D, Smith GC. A first estimate of the structure and density of the populations of pet cats and dogs across Great Britain. PLoS One. 2017;12:
- Lipinski MJ, Froenicke L, Baysac KC, Billings NC. Leutenegger C, Levy AM, et al. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations. Genomics. 2008;91:12–1.
- World Health Organization. Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine: 5th revision 2016 [cited 2001 Apr 16]. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255027/9789241512220-eng.pdf
- Goddard A, Leisewitz AL. Canine parvovirus. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010;40:1041–53.
- O’Neill J. Review on antimicrobial resistance: tackling drug-resistant infections globally [cited 2015 Dec 15]. http://amr-review.org/home
- British Small Animal Veterinary Association. BSAVA/SAMSoc guide to responsible use of antibacterials: PROTECT ME [cited 2011 Nov 18]. https://www.bsavalibrary.com/content/book/10.22233/9781910443644
- Hall JL, Holmes MA, Baines SJ. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of canine urinary tract pathogens. Vet Rec. 2013;173:549.
- Hernandez J, Bota D, Farbos M, Bernardin F, Ragetly G, Médaille C. Risk factors for urinary tract infection with multiple drug-resistant Escherichia coli in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2014;16:75–81.
- Huerta B, Maldonado A, Ginel PJ, Tarradas C, Gómez-Gascón L, Astorga RJ, et al. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci in canine pyoderma. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:302–8.
- O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Prevalence of disorders recorded in cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Vet J. 2014;202:286–91.
- Chhetri BK, Berke O, Pearl DL, Bienzle D. Comparison of risk factors for seropositivity to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus among cats: a case-case study. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:30.
- Quinn JV, Polevoi SK, Kohn MA. Traumatic lacerations: what are the risks for infection and has the ‘golden period’ of laceration care disappeared? Emerg Med J. 2014;31:96–100.
- Jacobs AA, Chalmers WS, Pasman J, van Vugt F, Cuenen LH. Feline bordetellosis: challenge and vaccine studies. Vet Rec. 1993;133:260–3.
- Lappin MR, Blondeau J, Boothe D, Breitschwerdt EB, Guardabassi L, Lloyd DH, et al. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of respiratory tract disease in dogs and cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31:279–94.
- Nuttall T, Uri M, Halliwell R. Canine atopic dermatitis - what have we learned? Vet Rec. 2013;172:201–7.
- Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Practice Standards Scheme [cited 2001 Dec 17]. https://www.rcvs.org.uk/setting-standards/practice-standards-scheme
- Pleydell EJ, Souphavanh K, Hill KE, French NP, Prattley DJ. Descriptive epidemiological study of the use of antimicrobial drugs by companion animal veterinarians in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2012;60:115–22.
- Abel GA, Barclay ME, Payne RA. Adjusted indices of multiple deprivation to enable comparisons within and between constituent countries of the UK including an illustration using mortality rates. BMJ Open. 2016;6: