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Volume 27, Number 2—February 2021

Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects, Costa Rica, 2016–2018

Adriana Benavides-LaraComments to Author , María de la Paz Barboza-Arguello, Mauricio González-Elizondo, Marcela Hernández-deMezerville, Helena Brenes-Chacón, Melissa Ramírez-Rojas, Catalina Ramírez-Hernández, Nereida Arjona-Ortegón, Shana Godfred-Cato, Diana Valencia, Cynthia A. Moore, and Alejandra Soriano-Fallas
Author affiliations: Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud, Cartago, Costa Rica (A. Benavides-Lara, M.P. Barboza-Arguello, M. González-Elizondo); Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica (M. Hernández-deMezerville, H. Brenes-Chacón, C. Ramírez-Hernández, N. Arjona Ortegón, A. Soriano-Fallas); Ministry of Health, San José (M. Ramírez-Rojas); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S. Godfred-Cato, D. Valencia, C.A. Moore)

Main Article

Table 2

Distribution of confirmed and probable ZIKV-associated birth defects, by trimester of infection for presence of ZIKV symptoms and laboratory confirmation for the mother, Costa Rica, March 2016–March 2018*

Cases Mothers by trimester of symptom onset
Asymptomatic mothers, subtotal Total
ZIKV positive through rRT-PCR of maternal sample
Without laboratory evidence in maternal sample
Subtotal Trimester
Confirmed† 2 1 0 3 4 2 0 6 2 11
Probable‡ 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 3 6 11
Total, no. (%) 2 (9) 3 (14) 0 5 (23) 4 (18) 5 (23) 0 9 (41) 8 (36) 22 (100)

*Samples were taken only from pregnant women with symptoms. rRT-PCR, real-time reverse transcription PCR; ZIKV, Zika virus.
†Designated as an infant with ZIKV-associated birth defects (clinical criteria), who was positive for ZIKV by rRT- PCR or IgM-ELISA in a sample taken before hospital discharge (laboratory criteria) and had an epidemiologic link (mother with ZIKV symptoms or positive rRT-PCR during pregnancy or from a high ZIKV-endemic community).
‡Designated as an infant with ZIKV-associated birth defects who was negative for ZIKV by rRT-PCR or IgM-ELISA or was not tested but whose mother had laboratory-confirmed ZIKV infection or had symptoms compatible with ZIKV infection or had a clear exposure to ZIKV during pregnancy and no other cause that could explain the birth defect.

Main Article

Page created: December 07, 2020
Page updated: January 21, 2021
Page reviewed: January 21, 2021
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