Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 27, Number 4—April 2021

Animal Reservoirs and Hosts for Emerging Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses

Ria R. GhaiComments to Author , Ann Carpenter, Amanda Y. Liew, Krystalyn B. Martin, Meghan K. Herring, Susan I. Gerber, Aron J. Hall, Jonathan M. Sleeman, Sophie VonDobschuetz, and Casey Barton Behravesh
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (R.R. Ghai, A. Carpenter, A.Y. Liew, K.B. Martin, M.K. Herring, S.I. Gerber, A.J. Hall, C. Barton Behravesh); Emory University, Atlanta (A.Y. Liew, K.B. Martin, M.K. Herring); US Geological Survey, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (J.M. Sleeman); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy (S. VonDobschuetz)

Main Article

Table 1

Current or previously emerging coronaviruses*

Pathogen (abbreviation) Disease (abbreviation) Viral genus Receptor (abbreviation) [suspected]
Alphacoronavirus 1 (ACoV1); strain canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) Canine coronavirus infection (CCoV) Alphacoronavirus Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13)
Alphacoronavirus 1 (ACoV1); strain feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP) Alphacoronavirus Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13)
Bat coronavirus HKU10 NA Alphacoronavirus Unknown
Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV) Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)–associated disease Alphacoronavirus Unknown
Human coronavirus NL63 Common cold Alphacoronavirus Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
Human coronavirus 229E Common cold Alphacoronavirus Human aminopeptidase N (hAPN, CD13)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) Alphacoronavirus [Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13)]
Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2; strain swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) Swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) Alphacoronavirus Unknown
Betacoronavirus 1; strain bovine coronavirus NA Betacoronavirus Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1)
Betacoronavirus 1; strain canine respiratory coronavirus Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) Betacoronavirus Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1)
Betacoronavirus1; strain human coronavirus OC43 Common cold Betacoronavirus Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1)
Human coronavirus HKU1 Common cold Betacoronavirus Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Betacoronavirus Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, CD26)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Betacoronavirus Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Betacoronavirus Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)

*All coronaviruses are described in Tables 2 and 3, including the receptor used for viral entry. NA, not available.

Main Article

Page created: January 25, 2021
Page updated: March 18, 2021
Page reviewed: March 18, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.