Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021

Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection among Camel Populations, Southern Jordan, 2014–2018

Peter HollowayComments to Author , Matthew Gibson, Neeltje van Doremalen, Stephen Nash, Tanja Holloway, Michael Letko, Jacqueline M. Cardwell, Bilal Al Omari, Ahmad Al-Majali, Ehab Abu-Basha, Punam Mangtani, Vincent J. Munster, and Javier Guitian
Author affiliations: The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK (P. Holloway, J.M. Cardwell, J. Guitian); Glasgow University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (M. Gibson); National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA (N. van Doremalen, M. Letko, V.J. Munster); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (S. Nash, T. Holloway, P. Mangtani); Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan (B. Al Omari, A. Al-Majali, E. Abu-Basha)

Main Article

Table 3

Multivariate associations between potential risk factors and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus seropositivity in camel populations, southern Jordan, February 2014–December 2015*

A priori adjusted OR (95% CI)†
p value
Fully adjusted OR (95% CI)‡
p value
Age, per y§
1.21 (1.07—1.40)
1.24 (1.08—1.42)
Male camels borrowed for breeding purposes
3.44 (1.09—12.25)
4.18 (1.45—12.09)
Herd size
Increasing individual camel nos.
1.05 (1.01—1.09)
1.04 (1.01—1.08)
Water source¶
Open ad lib Referent 0.19 Referent 0.08
Household only 0.52 (0.01—21.39) 0.90 (0.05—16.46)
Trough only
4.02 (0.51—40.84)

4.74 (0.93—24.08)

0.56 (0.16—1.79)
0.37 (0.12—1.14)
1.35 (0.45—3.86)
1.12 (0.38—3.26)
Number of camel herds within a 15-min drive
>20 2.24 (0.68—7.99) 0.18

*Variables reference the 1-year period before sampling, with the exception of herd size, camel is a racing camel, and a priori variables: age, sex, and region. Because of the potential influence of maternal immunity, camels <6 m of age have been excluded. OR, odds ratio. †Adjusted for a priori variables: age, sex, and region. ‡2014–2015 study was adjusted for a priori variables and number of camels nearby (within a 15 min drive). §Individual camel–level variables (all other variables being herd-level). ¶Open ad lib indicates irrigation reservoir or spring water sources were used; household only indicates water source was not shared between household and herd; trough only indicates only tanker, tap, or well sources were used.

Main Article

Page created: June 22, 2021
Page updated: August 17, 2021
Page reviewed: August 17, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.