Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 Gene Deletions from Persons with Symptomatic Malaria Infection in Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, and Rwanda
, Jessica N. McCaffery, Doug Nace, Samaly Souza Svigel, Ashenafi Assefa, Jimee Hwang, Simon Kariuki, Aaron M. Samuels, Nelli Westercamp, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Aline Uwimana, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, and Eric S. Halsey
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (E. Rogier, J.N. McCaffery, D. Nace, S.S. Svigel, A.M. Samuels, N. Westercamp, V. Udhayakumar); Ethiopia Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (A. Assefa); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J. Hwang, E.S. Halsey); Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya (S. Kariuki); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu (A.M. Samuels); Madagascar National Malaria Control Program, Antananarivo, Madagascar (A. Ratsimbasoa); Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo (M. Randrianarivelojosia); Université de Toliara, Toliara, Madagascar (M. Randrianarivelojosia); Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda (A. Uwimana)
Figure 3. Plasmodium falciparum parasite density and antigen levels by pfhrp2/3 genotype in study of Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected participants, Ethopia, Kenya, Madagascar, and Rwanda, 2016–2018. A) Peripheral blood parasite density as determined by light microscopy. B) Log-transformed assay signal to pAldolase, pLDH, and HRP2/3 antigens. Boxes display interquartile range, horizontal lines within boxes indicate medians, and whiskers indicate 1.5× interquartile range. Significant differences in means are indicated with corresponding p values. Within each plot, all other differences among genotypes did not reach statistical significance at α = 0.05. HRP2/3, histidine-rich protein 2/3; ln (MFI-bg), log-transformed median fluorescence intensity minus background value; pAldolase, pan-Plasmodium aldolase; pLDH, pan-Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase.
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