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Volume 28, Number 6—June 2022

Characterization of Healthcare-Associated and Community-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infections among Adults, Canada, 2015–2019

Tim Du1, Kelly B. Choi1, Anada Silva, George R. GoldingComments to Author , Linda Pelude, Romeo Hizon, Ghada N. Al-Rawahi, James Brooks, Blanda Chow, Jun C. Collet, Jeannette L. Comeau, Ian Davis, Gerald A. Evans, Charles Frenette, Guanghong Han, Jennie Johnstone, Pamela Kibsey, Kevin C. Katz, Joanne M. Langley, Bonita E. Lee, Yves Longtin, Dominik Mertz, Jessica Minion, Michelle ScienceComments to Author , Jocelyn A. Srigley, Paula Stagg, Kathryn N. Suh, Nisha Thampi, Alice Wong, and Susy S. Hota
Author affiliations: National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (T. Du, G.R. Golding, R. Hizon); Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (K.B. Choi, A. Silva, L. Pelude, J. Brooks); British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (G.N. Al-Rawahi); Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (B. Chow); BC Children’s & Women’s Hospitals, Vancouver (J.C. Collet, J.A. Srigley); Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (J.L. Comeau); Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax (I. Davis); Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (G.A. Evans); McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada (C. Frenette); Provincial Infection Control Network, Vancouver (G. Han); Sinai Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (J. Johnstone); Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (P. Kibsey); North York General Hospital, Toronto (K.C. Katz); IWK Health Centre, Halifax (J.M. Langley); Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (B.E. Lee); Jewish General Hospital, Montréal (Y. Longtin); Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (D. Mertz); Regina General Hospital, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada (J. Minion); The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (M. Science); Western Memorial Regional Hospital, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (P. Stagg); The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa (K.N. Suh); Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (N. Thampi); Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (A. Wong); University Health Network, Toronto (S.S. Hota)

Main Article

Table 2

Univariable and multivariable analysis of 30-day all-cause and Clostridioides difficile–attributable mortality, Canada, 2015–2019*

Characteristics Univariable analysis
Multivariable analysis
Odds ratio (95% CI) p value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value
All-cause mortality
M Referent Referent
F 1.15 (0.91–1.45) 0.2484 1.26 (0.93–1.70) NS
Age group, y
<65 Referent Referent
>65 2.66 (2.00–3.53) <0.0001 3.63 (2.45–5.39) <0.0001
Severe CDI† 2.53 (1.90–3.36) <0.0001 2.66 (1.90–3.73) <0.0001
CDI case type
Community-associated Referent Referent
Healthcare-associated 1.65 (1.21–2.24) 0.0014 1.83 (1.23–2.72) 0.0028
RT027 vs. non-RT027 1.48 (1.04–2.10) 0.0289 1.10 (0.74–1.63) NS
RT106 vs. non-RT106
1.09 (0.73–1.63)


CDI-attributable mortality
M Referent Referent
F 1.22 (0.79–1.87) 0.3776 1.33 (0.81–1.19) NS
Age group, y
<65 Referent Referent
>65 3.28 (1.84–5.85) <0.0001 3.44 (1.73–6.82) 0.0004
Severe CDI† 2.40 (1.45–4.0) 0.0006 2.25 (1.28–3.94) 0.0050
CDI case type
Community-associated Referent Referent
Healthcare-associated 1.29 (0.76–2.22) 0.3476 1.25 (0.67–2.35) NS
RT027 vs. non-RT027 3.17 (1.89–5.29) <0.0001 2.85 (1.64–5.00) 0.0002
RT106 vs. non-RT106 0.95 (0.45–2.00) 0.8830 NA

*Bold text indicates statistical significance. CDI, Clostridioides difficile infection; NA, not applicable; NS, not significant; RT, ribotype. †Severe CDI defined as albumin level <30 g/L, leukocyte count >15 × 109 cells/L, or both.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: April 01, 2022
Page updated: May 22, 2022
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