Clonal Dissemination of Antifungal-Resistant Candida haemulonii, China
Xinfei Chen, Xinmiao Jia, Jian Bing, Han Zhang, Nan Hong, Yun Liu, Haiyang Xi, Weiping Wang, Zhiyong Liu, Qiangqiang Zhang, Li Li, Mei Kang, Yuling Xiao, Bin Yang, Yulan Lin, Hui Xu, Xin Fan, Jingjing Huang, Jie Gong, Juan Xu, Xiuli Xie, Wenhang Yang, Ge Zhang, Jingjia Zhang, Wei Kang, He Wang, Xin Hou, Meng Xiao1
, and Yingchun Xu1
Author affiliations: Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China (X. Chen, X. Jia, H. Zhang, J. Huang, X. Xie, W. Yang, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Kang, M. Xiao, Y. Xu); State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases and Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing (X. Chen, X. Jia, H. Zhang, J. Huang, X. Xie, W. Yang, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Kang, M. Xiao, Y. Xu); Fudan University, Shanghai, China (J. Bing, Q. Zhang, L. Li); Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China (N. Hong, H. Xi, W. Wang); Changhai Hospital, Shanghai (Y. Liu); Southwest Hospital Affiliated the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (Z. Liu); Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (M. Kang, Y. Xiao); The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China (B. Yang, Y. Lin); The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China (H. Xu); Capital Medical University, Beijing (X. Fan); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (J. Gong, J. Xu); Dynamiker Sub-Center of Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease, Tianjin, China (H. Wang); Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (X. Hou)
Figure 2. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree constructed based on whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms and phylogenetic clades in a study of antifungal-resistant Candida haemulonii in China. Information is labeled for each strain: geographic origin, antifungal susceptibilities for representative drugs of different classes (fluconazole, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine), and key amino acid substitutions related to antifungal resistance that were observed in genes encoding lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (ERG11) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (FUR1). The tree was rooted to strain B10441 (CBS5149), which is the most ancient C. haemulonii strain, identified in 1962 (from Haemulon sciurus). All remaining strains were isolated after 2010.
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