Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002

Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–20001

Dean D. Erdman*Comments to Author , Wanhong Xu*, Susan I. Gerber†, Gregory C. Gray‡, David Schnurr§, Adriana E. Kajon¶, and Larry J. Anderson*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California, USA; §California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California, USA; ¶Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA;

Main Article

Table 4

Recognized civilian outbreaks of human adenovirus 7 (Ad7) respiratory disease, United States, 1996–2000

Location Date Setting No. casesa No. deaths No. Ad7 isolates No. restriction Genome type
Houma, LAb June 1996 Pediatric chronic-care facility 13 7 4 2 7d2
Memphis, TNc Mar 1997 Community acquired 47 1 26 0 nd
Chicago, ILd Nov 1998 Pediatric chronic-care facility 31 8 11 11 7d2
and tertiary hospital 37 0 6 6 "
New York City, NYe Oct 1999 Chronic-care facility for 33 7 15 15 7bvar
mentally disabled persons
Des Moines, IAf Oct 2000 Pediatric chronic-care facility 20 4 9 9 7d2
aSuspected and confirmed cases of Ad7 respiratory disease.
bRobert Gohd, Children's Hospital, New Oreleans, LA (pers. comm.).
fMichael Buley, Iowa Dept of Public Health, Des Moines, IA (pers. comm.).
cMitchell et al. (16).
dGerber et al. (17).
eJennifer Calder, The Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (manuscript in preparation).

Main Article

  1. De Jong  JC, Wermenbol  AG, Verweij-Uijterwaal  MW, Slaterus  KW, Wertheim-Van Dillen  P, Van Doornum  GJ, Adenoviruses from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, including two strains that represent new candidate serotypes Ad50 and Ad51 of species B1 and D, respectively. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:39405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Hierholzer  J. Adenoviruses. In: Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET, editors. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial and chlamydial infections. 7th ed. Washington: American Public Health Association; 1995. p. 169-88.
  3. Simila  S, Ylikorkala  O, Wasz-Hockert  O. Type 7 adenovirus pneumonia. J Pediatr. 1971;79:60511. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Field  PR, Patwardhan  J, McKenzie  JA, Murphy  AM. Fatal adenovirus type 7 pneumonia in an adult. Med J Aust. 1978;2:4457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpert  G, Charney  E, Fee  M, Plotkin  SA. Outbreak of fatal adenoviral type 7a respiratory disease in a children's long-term care inpatient facility. Am J Infect Control. 1986;14:18890. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Zarraga  AL, Kerns  FT, Kitchen  LW. Adenovirus pneumonia with severe sequelae in an immunocompetent adult. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15:7123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Munoz  FM, Piedra  PA, Demmler  GJ. Disseminated adenovirus disease in immuno-compromised and immunocompetent children. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:11941200. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kelsey  DS. Adenovirus meningoencephalitis. Pediatrics. 1978;61:2913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ladisch  S, Lovejoy  FH, Hierholzer  JC, Oxman  MN, Strieder  D, Vawter  GF, Extrapulmonary manifestations of adenovirus type 7 pneumonia simulating Reye syndrome and the possible role of an adenovirus toxin. J Pediatr. 1979;95:34855. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Sly  PD, Soto-Quiros  ME, Landau  LI, Hudson  I, Newton-John  H. Factors predisposing to abnormal pulmonary function after adenovirus type 7 pneumonia. Arch Dis Child. 1984;59:9359. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Schmitz  H, Wigand  R, Heinreich  W. Worldwide epidemiology of human adenovirus infections. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;117:45566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Wadell  G, Varsanyi  TM, Lord  A, Sutton  RN. Epidemic outbreaks of adenovirus 7 with special reference to the pathogenicity of adenovirus genome type 7b. Am J Epidemiol. 1980;112:61928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Straube  RC, Thompson  MA, Van Dyke  RB, Wadell  G, Connor  JD, Wingard  D, Adenovirus type 7b in a children's hospital. J Infect Dis. 1983;147:8149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Finn  A, Anday  E, Talbot  GH. An epidemic of adenovirus 7a infection in a neonatal nursery: course, morbidity, and management. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1988;9:398404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Yamadera  S, Yamashita  K, Akatsuka  M, Kato  N, Inouye  S. Trend of adenovirus type 7 infection, an emerging disease in Japan. A report of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Agents in Japan. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1998;51:4351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mitchell  LS, Taylor  B, Reimels  W, Barrett  FF, Devincenzo  JP. Adenovirus 7a: a community-acquired outbreak in a children's hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:9961000. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerber  SI, Erdman  DD, Pur  SL, Diaz  PS, Segreti  J, Kajon  A, Outbreak of adenovirus genome type 7d2 infection in a pediatric chronic-care facility and tertiary-care hospital. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:694700. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hong  J-Y, Lee  H-J, Piedra  PA, Choi  E-H, Park  K-H, Koh  Y-Y, Lower respiratory tract infections due to adenovirus in hospitalized Korean children: epidemiology, clinical features, and prognosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:14239. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Top  FH Jr. Control of adenovirus acute respiratory disease in U.S. Army trainees. Yale J Biol Med. 1975;48:18595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gray  GC, Goswami  PR, Malasig  M, Hawksworth  AW, Trump  DH, Ryan  MA, Adult adenovirus infections: loss of orphaned vaccines precipitates military respiratory disease epidemics. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:66370. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ryan  MAK, Gray  GC, Smith  B, McKeehan  JA, Hawksworth  AW, Malasig  MD. Large epidemic of respiratory illness from adenovirus types 7 and 3 in healthy young adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2002. In press.
  22. McNeill  KM, Benton  FR, Monteith  SC, Tuchscherer  MA, Gaydos  CA. Epidemic spread of adenovirus type 4-associated acute respiratory disease between U.S. army installations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:4159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Li  QG, Wadell  G. Analysis of 15 different genome types of adenovirus type 7 isolated on five continents. J Virol. 1986;60:3315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Li  QG, Zheng  QJ, Liu  YH, Wadell  G. Molecular epidemiology of adenovirus types 3 and 7 isolated from children with pneumonia in Beijing. J Med Virol. 1996;49:1707. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wadell  G, Varsanyi  TM. Demonstration of three different subtypes of adenovirus type 7 by DNA restriction site mapping. Infect Immun. 1978;21:23846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Crawford-Miksza  LK, Nang  RN, Schnurr  DP. Strain variation in adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7a causing acute respiratory disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:110712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wadell  G, Cooney  MK, da Costa Linhares  A, de Silva  L, Kennett  ML, Kono  R, Molecular epidemiology of adenoviruses: global distribution of adenovirus 7 genome types. J Clin Microbiol. 1985;21:4038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Adrian  T, Becker  M, Hierholzer  JC, Wigand  R. Molecular epidemiology and restriction site mapping of adenovirus 7 genome types. Arch Virol. 1989;106:7384. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. de Silva  LM, Colditz  P, Wadell  G. Adenovirus type 7 infections in children in New South Wales, Australia. J Med Virol. 1989;29:2832. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Moraes  MT, Leite  JP, Siqueira  MM, Portes  SA, Krawczuk  MM, Nascimento  JP. Genomic characterization of adenovirus serotype 7 isolated in Brazil from acute respiratory disease patients during the period from 1980 to 1991. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1997;39:1859. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Golovina  GI, Zolotaryov  FN, Yurlova  TI. Sensitive analysis of genetic heterogeneity of adenovirus types 3 and 7 in the Soviet Union. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:231321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kajon  A, Wadell  G. Genome analysis of South American adenovirus strains of serotype 7 collected over a 7-year period. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:23213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kajon  AE, Mistchenko  AS, Videla  C, Hortal  M, Wadell  G, Avendano  LF. Molecular epidemiology of adenovirus acute lower respiratory infections of children in the south cone of South America (1991-1994). J Med Virol. 1996;48:1516. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Larranaga  C, Kajon  A, Villagra  E, Avendano  LF. Adenovirus surveillance on children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory infections in Chile (1988-1996). J Med Virol. 2000;60:3426. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Noda  M, Kiritani  M, Abe  K, Ikeda  Y, Yamaoka  K, Ogino  T. Restriction enzyme analysis of adenovirus type 7 isolates in Japan. Infectious agents surveillance report. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan. 1996;17:1024.
  36. Ikeda  Y, Abe  K, Kamimura  M, Fujii  A, Yamaoka  K, Ogino  T. Isolation of adenovirus type 7 during 1995-1999 and a case of type 7h infection - Hiroshima City. Infectious agents surveillance report. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan. 2000;21:278.
  37. Azar  R, Varsano  N, Mileguir  F, Mendelson  E. Molecular epidemiology of adenovirus type 7 in Israel: identification of two new genome types, Ad7k and Ad7d2. J Med Virol. 1998;54:2919. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hashido  M, Mukouyama  A, Sakae  K, Tsuzuki  H, Yamashita  T, Inada  T, Molecular and serological characterization of adenovirus genome type 7h isolated in Japan. Epidemiol Infect. 1999;122:2816. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu  W, Erdman  DD. Identification of human adenovirus types 3, 7 and 21 by a multiplex PCR assay. J Med Virol. 2001;64:53742. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Deryckere  F, Burgert  HG. Rapid method for preparing adenovirus DNA. Biotechniques. 1997;22:86870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Niel  C, Moraes  MT, Mistchenko  AS, Leite  JP, Gomes  SA. Restriction site mapping of four genome types of adenovirus types 3 and 7 isolated in South America. J Med Virol. 1991;33:1237. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kajon  AE, Wadell  G. Characterization of adenovirus genome type 7h: analysis of its relationship to other members of serotype 7. Intervirology. 1992;33:8690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crawford-Miksza  L, Schnurr  DP. Analysis of 15 adenovirus hexon proteins reveals the location and structure of seven hypervariable regions containing serotype-specific residues. J Virol. 1996;70:183644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kajon  AE, Murtagh  P, Garcia Franco  S, Freire  MC, Weissenbacher  MC, Zorzopulos  J. A new genome type of adenovirus 3 associated with severe lower acute respiratory infection in children. J Med Virol. 1990;30:736. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Li  Q, Wadell  G. Genetic variability of hexon loops 1 and 2 between seven genome types of adenovirus serotype 7. Arch Virol. 1999;144:173949. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fu  WY, Dong  L, Zheng  YC, Liu  WM, Zhong  X, Guo  HJ. A study of molecular epidemiology of adenovirus of types 3 and 7 on infant pneumonia in Northern China. Chin Med J (Engl). 1989;102:85761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chany  C, Lepine  P, Lelong  M, Vin  L-T, Stage  P. Severe and fatal pneumonia in infants and young children associated with adenovirus infections. Am J Hyg. 1958;67:36778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ozawa  S, Yamagami  T, Watanabe  T, Machida  A, Yakutai  K, Yokoyama  H. Serosurvey after an outbreak of adenovirus type 7 infection at a high school dormitory - Yamanashi. Infectious agents surveillance report. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan. 1997;18:823.
  49. Miwa  C. [Serosurvey for adenovirus type 3 and adenovirus type 7 infection in resident in Gifu Prefecture, 1996]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1997;71:12612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ludwig  SL, Brundage  JF, Kelley  PW, Nang  R, Towle  C, Schnurr  DP, Prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7 among unimmunized US Army trainees: results of a retrospective nationwide seroprevalence survey. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:17768. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Piedra  PA, Poveda  GA, Ramsey  B, McCoy  K, Hiatt  P. Incidence and prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the common adenoviruses in children with cystic fibrosis: implication for gene therapy with adenovirus vectors. Pediatrics. 1998;101:10139. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Videla  C, Carballal  G, Misirlian  A, Aguilar  M. Acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus among hospitalized children from Argentina. Clin Diagn Virol. 1998;10:1723. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

1These data were presented in part at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, July 16-19, 2000, Atlanta, GA.

Page created: July 14, 2010
Page updated: July 14, 2010
Page reviewed: July 14, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.