Volume 9, Number 10—October 2003
Syndromic Surveillance and Bioterrorism-related Epidemics
- Lazarus R, Kleinman KP, Dashevsky I, DeMaria A, Platt R. Using automated medical records for rapid identification of illness syndromes (syndromic surveillance): the example of lower respiratory infection. BMC Public Health. 2001;1:9.
- Mostashari F. BT surveillance in New York City. Presentation at the CDC International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2002, Atlanta. [Cited January 2003] Available from: URL: ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/infectious_diseases/iceid/2002/pdf/mostashari.pdf
- Wagner MM, Tsui F, Espino JU, Dato VM, Sittig DF, Caruana RA, The emerging science of very early detection of disease outbreaks. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2001;7:51–9.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Draft framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems for bioterrorism preparedness. [Cited December 2002] Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/dphsi/phs/syndromic.htm
- Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, National Research Council of the National Academies. Making the nation safer, the role of science and technology in countering terrorism. Washington: National Academies Press; 2002. p. 74–6.
- Henning KJ. Syndromic surveillance. In: Smolinski MS, Hamburg MA, Lederberg J, editors. Microbial threats to health, emergence, detection, and response. Washington: Institute of Medicine National Academies Press; 2003. Appendix B.
- Lewis MD, Pavlin JA, Mansfield LJ, O’Brien S, Boomsma LG, Elbert Y, Disease outbreak detection system using syndromic data in the greater Washington DC area. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:180–6.
- Broad WJ, Miller J. Health data monitored for bioterror warning. New York Times, Jan 27, 2003, page A1. [Cited Feb 2003]. Available from: URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/27/national/27DISE.html
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Press release. CDC provides $1.2 million to fund pilot program for early warning system for terrorism-related illness outbreaks. [Cited Dec 2002] Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r021002.htm
- Reingold A. If syndromic surveillance is the answer, what is the question? Biosecurity and Bioterrorism. Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science. 2003;1:1–5.
- Rotz LD, Khan AS, Lillibridge SR, Ostroff SM, Hughes JM. Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:225–30.
- Inglesby TV, O’Toole T, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002, updated recommendations for management. JAMA. 2002;287:2236–52.
- Jernigan JA, Stephens DS, Ashford DA, Omenaca C, Topiel MS, Galbraith M, Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:933–44.
- Barakat LA, Quentzel HL, Jernigan JA. Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman. JAMA. 2002;287:863–8.
- Bush LM, Abrams BH, Beall A, Johnson CC. Index case of fatal inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1607–10.
- Borio L, Frank D, Mani V, Chiriboga C, Pollman M, Ripple M, Death due to bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, report of 2 patients. JAMA. 2001;286:2554–9.
- Mayer TA, Bersoff-Matcha S, Murphy C, Earls J, Harper S, Pauze D, Clinical presentation of inhalational anthrax following bioterrorism exposure, report of 2 surviving patients. JAMA. 2001;286:2549–53.
- Dewan PK, Fry AM, Laserson K, Tierney BC, Quinn CP, Hayslett JA, Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1066–72.
- Jernigan DB, Raghunathan PL, Bell BP, Brechner R, Bresnitz EA, Butler JC, Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1019–28.
- Kuehert MJ, Doyle TJ, Hill HA, Bridges CB, Jernigan JA, Dull PM, Clinical features that discriminate inhalational anthrax from other acute respiratory illnesses. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:328–36.
- Sartwell PE. The distribution of the incubation periods of disease (historical paper). Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:386–94.
- Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Tularemia as a biological weapon, medical and public health management. JAMA. 2001;285:2763–73.
- Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters CJ, Schmaljohn AL, Hughes JM, Jahrling PB, Hemorrhagic fevers viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2002;287:2391–405.
- Meselson M, Guillemin J, Hugh-Jones M, Langmuir A, Popova I, Shelokov A, The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science. 1994;266:1202–7.
- Brookmeyer R, Blades N. Prevention of inhalational anthrax in the US outbreak. Science. 2002;295:1861.
- Arnon SS, Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2001;285:1059–70.
- Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Jahrling PB, Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 1999;281:2127–37.
- Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2000;283:2281–90.
- St Louis ME, Peck SH, Bowering D, Morgan GB, Blatherwick J, Banerjee S, Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:363–8.
- Meltzer MI, Damon I, LeDuc JW, Millar JD. Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:959–69.
- Gani R, Leach S. Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populations. Nature. 2001;414:748–51.
- Kaplan EH, Craft DL, Wein LM. Emergency response to a smallpox attack: the case for mass vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10935–40.
- Halloran ME, Longini IM, Nizam A, Yang Y. Containing bioterrorist smallpox. Science. 2002;298:1428–32.
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. HHS announces $1.1 billion in funding to states for bioterrorism preparedness. Press release. Jan 31, 2002 [Cited March 2003]. Available from: URL: http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2002pres/20020131b.html.
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. HHS announces bioterrorism aid for states, including special opportunity for advance fund. Press release. Mar 20, 2003 [Cited March 2003]. Available from: URL: http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2003pres/20030320.html
- Bresnitz EA, DiFerdinando GT. Lessons from the anthrax attacks of 2001, the New Jersey experience. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2003;2:227–52.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Office of Communications and Public Liaison. HHS accelerates bioterrorism research: new programs expedite ideas from concerned scientists. Press release. Dec 6, 2001 [Cited March 2003]. Available from: URL: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/newsroom/releases/accelbio.htm
- Smolinski MS, Hamburg MA, Lederberg JA, eds. Microbial threats to health, emergence, detection, and response. Washington: Institute of Medicine National Academies Press; 2003. p. 183–94.
1For interval calculations, if reported event dates were discrepant in different case reports, dates reported by Jernigan et al. (13) were used.