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Volume 29, Number 4—April 2023
New Zealand (Aotearoa) experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic during 1991–2006, and incidence remains twice that of other high-income countries. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and immunization data for children <15 years of age with laboratory-confirmed invasive meningococcal disease in Auckland, New Zealand, during January 1, 2004–December 31, 2020. Of 319 cases in 318 children, 4.1% died, and 23.6% with follow-up data experienced sequelae. Children of Māori and Pacific ethnicity and those living in the most deprived areas were overrepresented. Eighty-one percent were positive for N. meningitidis serogroup B, 8.6% for serogroup W, 6.3% for serogroup C, and 3.7% for serogroup Y. Seventy-nine percent had bacteremia, and 63.9% had meningitis. In New Zealand, Māori and Pacific children are disproportionately affected by this preventable disease. N. meningitidis serogroup B vaccine should be included in the New Zealand National Immunization Schedule to address this persistent health inequity.
|EID||Burton C, Best E, Broom M, Heffernan H, Briggs S, Webb R. Pediatric Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Auckland, New Zealand (Aotearoa), 2004–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(4):686-695. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2904.221397|
|AMA||Burton C, Best E, Broom M, et al. Pediatric Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Auckland, New Zealand (Aotearoa), 2004–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(4):686-695. doi:10.3201/eid2904.221397.|
|APA||Burton, C., Best, E., Broom, M., Heffernan, H., Briggs, S., & Webb, R. (2023). Pediatric Invasive Meningococcal Disease, Auckland, New Zealand (Aotearoa), 2004–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(4), 686-695. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2904.221397.|
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, few cases of Nocardia spp. co-infection have been reported during or after a COVID-19 infection. Nocardia spp. are gram-positive aerobic actinomycetes that stain partially acid-fast, can infect immunocompromised patients, and may cause disseminated disease. We report the case of a 52-year-old immunocompromised man who had Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis pneumonia develop after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also summarize the literature for nocardiosis and SARS-CoV-2 co-infections. Nocardia spp. infection should remain a part of the differential diagnosis for pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts, regardless of other co-infections. Sulfonamide/carbapenem combinations are used as empiric therapy for nocardiosis; species identification and susceptibility testing are required to select the optimal treatment for each patient.
|EID||Stamos D, Barajas-Ochoa A, Raybould JE. Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis Co-infection in SARS-CoV-2 Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(4):696-700. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2904.221439|
|AMA||Stamos D, Barajas-Ochoa A, Raybould JE. Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis Co-infection in SARS-CoV-2 Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(4):696-700. doi:10.3201/eid2904.221439.|
|APA||Stamos, D., Barajas-Ochoa, A., & Raybould, J. E. (2023). Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis Co-infection in SARS-CoV-2 Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(4), 696-700. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2904.221439.|
Volume 29, Number 3—March 2023
Molecular methods can enable rapid identification of Bartonella spp. infections, which are difficult to diagnose by using culture or serology. We analyzed clinical test results of PCR that targeted bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable V1–V2 regions only or in parallel with PCR of Bartonella-specific ribC gene. We identified 430 clinical specimens infected with Bartonella spp. from 420 patients in the United States. Median patient age was 37 (range 1–79) years; 62% were male. We identified B. henselae in 77%, B. quintana in 13%, B. clarridgeiae in 1%, B. vinsonii in 1%, and B. washoensis in 1% of specimens. B. quintana was detected in 83% of cardiac specimens; B. henselae was detected in 34% of lymph node specimens. We detected novel or uncommon Bartonella spp. in 9 patients. Molecular diagnostic testing can identify Bartonella spp. infections, including uncommon and undescribed species, and might be particularly useful for patients who have culture-negative endocarditis or lymphadenitis.
|EID||McCormick DW, Rassoulian-Barrett SL, Hoogestraat DR, Salipante SJ, SenGupta D, Dietrich EA, et al. Bartonella spp. Infections Identified by Molecular Methods, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(3):467-476. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2903.221223|
|AMA||McCormick DW, Rassoulian-Barrett SL, Hoogestraat DR, et al. Bartonella spp. Infections Identified by Molecular Methods, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(3):467-476. doi:10.3201/eid2903.221223.|
|APA||McCormick, D. W., Rassoulian-Barrett, S. L., Hoogestraat, D. R., Salipante, S. J., SenGupta, D., Dietrich, E. A....Lieberman, J. A. (2023). Bartonella spp. Infections Identified by Molecular Methods, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(3), 467-476. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2903.221223.|
Incidence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) bacteremia is increasing in the Kyoto-Shiga region of Japan. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of SDSE bacteremia and conducted comparative genomic analyses of isolates collected from 146 bacteremia episodes among 133 patients during 2005–2021. Of those patients, 7.7% required vasopressor support, and 7.0% died while in the hospital. The prevalence of isolates resistant to erythromycin, minocycline, and clindamycin increased from 8.6% during 2005–2017 to 21.6% during 2018–2021. Our genomic analysis demonstrated that sequence type 525 and clonal complex 25 were predominant in SDSE isolates collected during 2018–2021. In addition, those isolates had acquired 2 antimicrobial-resistance genes, ermB and tetM, via Tn916-like integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed clonal distribution of Tn916-like ICEs in SDSE isolates. Our findings suggest that Tn916-like ICEs contributed to the emergence and recent increase of multidrug-resistant SDSE bacteremia in this region of Japan.
|EID||Shinohara K, Murase K, Tsuchido Y, Noguchi T, Yukawa S, Yamamoto M, et al. Clonal Expansion of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis Causing Bacteremia, Japan, 2005–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(3):528-539. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2903.221060|
|AMA||Shinohara K, Murase K, Tsuchido Y, et al. Clonal Expansion of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis Causing Bacteremia, Japan, 2005–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(3):528-539. doi:10.3201/eid2903.221060.|
|APA||Shinohara, K., Murase, K., Tsuchido, Y., Noguchi, T., Yukawa, S., Yamamoto, M....Nagao, M. (2023). Clonal Expansion of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis Causing Bacteremia, Japan, 2005–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(3), 528-539. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2903.221060.|
Volume 29, Number 2—February 2023
Infant botulism (IB) is an intestinal toxemia that manifests as descending paralysis, constipation, and, in some cases, respiratory failure. Laboratory-confirmed IB cases are rare, and recent data in Israel are lacking. We conducted a national multicenter retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed IB cases reported in Israel during 2007–2021. A total of 8 cases were reported during the study period. During 2019–2021, incidence may have increased because of a cluster of 5 cases. Infant median age for diagnosis was 6.5 months, older than previously reported (3 months). Most cases occurred during March–July. Honey consumption was reported in 1 case, and possible environmental risk factors (living nearby rural or construction areas, dust exposure, and having a father who works as a farmer) were reported in 6 cases. Although IB is rare, its incidence in Israel may have increased over recent years, and its epidemiology and risk factors differ from cases reported previously in Israel.
|EID||Goldberg B, Danino D, Levinsky Y, Levy I, Straussberg R, Dabaja-Younis H, et al. Infant Botulism, Israel, 2007–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(2):235-241. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2902.220991|
|AMA||Goldberg B, Danino D, Levinsky Y, et al. Infant Botulism, Israel, 2007–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(2):235-241. doi:10.3201/eid2902.220991.|
|APA||Goldberg, B., Danino, D., Levinsky, Y., Levy, I., Straussberg, R., Dabaja-Younis, H....Scheuerman, O. (2023). Infant Botulism, Israel, 2007–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(2), 235-241. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2902.220991.|
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral infectious disease for which distribution of the main vector, Hyalomma spp. ticks, is expanding. We analyzed all 10 cases of CCHF diagnosed in Spain during 2013–2021; case-patient median age was 56.5 years, and 7 were men. We identified CCHF virus genotypes III and V. Six case-patients acquired the infection in urban areas. Sixty percent of patients were infected in summer and 40% in spring. Two patients met criteria for hemophagocytic syndrome. Seven patients survived. The epidemiologic pattern of CCHF in Spain is based on occasional cases with an elevated mortality rate. Genotype III and, to a less extent also genotype V, CCHF circulates in humans in a common geographic area in Spain. Those data suggest that the expansion pathways are complex and may change over time. Physicians should remain alert to the possibility of new CCHF cases.
|EID||Lorenzo Juanes H, Carbonell C, Sendra B, López-Bernus A, Bahamonde A, Orfao A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Spain, 2013–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(2):252-259. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2902.220677|
|AMA||Lorenzo Juanes H, Carbonell C, Sendra B, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Spain, 2013–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(2):252-259. doi:10.3201/eid2902.220677.|
|APA||Lorenzo Juanes, H., Carbonell, C., Sendra, B., López-Bernus, A., Bahamonde, A., Orfao, A....Belhassen-García, M. (2023). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Spain, 2013–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(2), 252-259. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2902.220677.|
Volume 29, Number 1—January 2023
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic triggered considerable attention to the emergence and evolution of novel human pathogens. Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first discovered in 2014 in Bourbon County, Kansas, USA. Since its initial discovery, several cases of BRBV infection in humans have been identified in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. BRBV is classified within the Thogotovirus genus; these negative-strand RNA viruses appear to be transmitted by ticks, and much of their biology remains unknown. In this review, we describe the emergence, virology, geographic range and ecology, and human disease caused by BRBV and discuss potential treatments for active BRBV infections. This virus and other emerging viral pathogens remain key public health concerns and require continued surveillance and study to mitigate human exposure and disease.
|EID||Roe MK, Huffman ER, Batista YS, Papadeas GG, Kastelitz SR, Restivo AM, et al. Comprehensive Review of Emergence and Virology of Tickborne Bourbon Virus in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.212295|
|AMA||Roe MK, Huffman ER, Batista YS, et al. Comprehensive Review of Emergence and Virology of Tickborne Bourbon Virus in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(1):1-7. doi:10.3201/eid2901.212295.|
|APA||Roe, M. K., Huffman, E. R., Batista, Y. S., Papadeas, G. G., Kastelitz, S. R., Restivo, A. M....Stobart, C. C. (2023). Comprehensive Review of Emergence and Virology of Tickborne Bourbon Virus in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.212295.|
We performed a case–control study across 25 hospitals in India for the period of January–June 2021 to evaluate the reasons for an COVID-19–associated mucormycosis (CAM) outbreak. We investigated whether COVID-19 treatment practices (glucocorticoids, zinc, tocilizumab, and others) were associated with CAM. We included 1,733 cases of CAM and 3,911 age-matched COVID-19 controls. We found cumulative glucocorticoid dose (odds ratio [OR] 1.006, 95% CI 1.004–1.007) and zinc supplementation (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.24–3.40), along with elevated C-reactive protein (OR 1.004, 95% CI 1.002–1.006), host factors (renal transplantation [OR 7.58, 95% CI 3.31–17.40], diabetes mellitus [OR 6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.28], diabetic ketoacidosis during COVID-19 [OR 4.41, 95% CI 2.03–9.60]), and rural residence (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.12–3.79), significantly associated with CAM. Mortality rate at 12 weeks was 32.2% (473/1,471). We emphasize the judicious use of COVID-19 therapies and optimal glycemic control to prevent CAM.
|EID||Muthu V, Agarwal R, Rudramurthy S, Thangaraju D, Shevkani M, Patel AK, et al. Multicenter Case–Control Study of COVID-19–Associated Mucormycosis Outbreak, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023;29(1):8-19. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.220926|
|AMA||Muthu V, Agarwal R, Rudramurthy S, et al. Multicenter Case–Control Study of COVID-19–Associated Mucormycosis Outbreak, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(1):8-19. doi:10.3201/eid2901.220926.|
|APA||Muthu, V., Agarwal, R., Rudramurthy, S., Thangaraju, D., Shevkani, M., Patel, A. K....Chakrabarti, A. (2023). Multicenter Case–Control Study of COVID-19–Associated Mucormycosis Outbreak, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(1), 8-19. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.220926.|
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