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Issue Cover for Volume 28, Number 9—September 2022

Volume 28, Number 9—September 2022

[PDF - 13.22 MB - 204 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection, New Zealand [PDF - 826 KB - 8 pages]
T. Hills et al.

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection during pregnancy can cause preterm birth and fetal loss, but the mechanism is unclear. We investigated 54 cases of pregnancy-associated invasive H. influenzae disease in 52 unique pregnancies in the Auckland region of New Zealand during October 1, 2008‒September 30, 2018. Intraamniotic infection was identified in 36 (66.7%) of 54 cases. Outcome data were available for 48 pregnancies. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, defined as fetal loss, preterm birth, or the birth of an infant requiring intensive/special care unit admission, occurred in 45 (93.8%) of 48 (pregnancies. Fetal loss occurred in 17 (35.4%) of 48 pregnancies, before 24 weeks’ gestation in 13 cases, and at >24 weeks’ gestation in 4 cases. The overall incidence of pregnancy-associated invasive H. influenzae disease was 19.9 cases/100,000 births, which exceeded the reported incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis in New Zealand. We also observed higher rates in younger women and women of Māori ethnicity.

EID Hills T, Sharpe C, Wong T, Cutfield T, Lee A, McBride S, et al. Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1747-1754. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220313
AMA Hills T, Sharpe C, Wong T, et al. Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1747-1754. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220313.
APA Hills, T., Sharpe, C., Wong, T., Cutfield, T., Lee, A., McBride, S....Thomas, M. (2022). Fetal Loss and Preterm Birth Caused by Intraamniotic Haemophilus influenzae Infection, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1747-1754. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220313.
Research

Quantifying Population Burden and Effectiveness of Decentralized Surveillance Strategies for Skin-Presenting Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liberia [PDF - 2.97 MB - 10 pages]
J. Timothy et al.

We evaluated programmatic approaches for skin neglected tropical disease (NTD) surveillance and completed a robust estimation of the burden of skin NTDs endemic to West Africa (Buruli ulcer, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis morbidity, and yaws). In Maryland, Liberia, exhaustive case finding by community health workers of 56,285 persons across 92 clusters identified 3,241 suspected cases. A total of 236 skin NTDs (34.0 [95% CI 29.1–38.9]/10,000 persons) were confirmed by midlevel healthcare workers trained using a tailored program. Cases showed a focal and spatially heterogeneous distribution. This community health worker‒led approach showed a higher skin NTD burden than prevailing surveillance mechanisms, but also showed high (95.1%) and equitable population coverage. Specialized training and task-shifting of diagnoses to midlevel health workers led to reliable identification of skin NTDs, but reliability of individual diagnoses varied. This multifaceted evaluation of skin NTD surveillance strategies quantifies benefits and limitations of key approaches promoted by the 2030 NTD roadmap of the World Health Organization.

EID Timothy J, Rogers E, Halliday KE, Mulbah T, Marks M, Zaizay Z, et al. Quantifying Population Burden and Effectiveness of Decentralized Surveillance Strategies for Skin-Presenting Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liberia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1755-1764. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212126
AMA Timothy J, Rogers E, Halliday KE, et al. Quantifying Population Burden and Effectiveness of Decentralized Surveillance Strategies for Skin-Presenting Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1755-1764. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212126.
APA Timothy, J., Rogers, E., Halliday, K. E., Mulbah, T., Marks, M., Zaizay, Z....Pullan, R. L. (2022). Quantifying Population Burden and Effectiveness of Decentralized Surveillance Strategies for Skin-Presenting Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1755-1764. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212126.

Rapid Adaptation of Established High-Throughput Molecular Testing Infrastructure for Monkeypox Virus Detection [PDF - 934 KB - 5 pages]
D. Nörz et al.

Beginning in May 2022, a rising number of monkeypox cases were reported in non–monkeypox-endemic countries in the Northern Hemisphere. We adapted 2 published quantitative PCRs for use as a dual-target monkeypox virus test on widely used automated high-throughput PCR systems. We determined analytic performance by serial dilutions of monkeypox virus reference material, which we quantified by digital PCR. We found the lower limit of detection for the combined assays was 4.795 (95% CI 3.6–8.6) copies/mL. We compared clinical performance against a commercial manual orthopoxvirus research use only PCR kit by using clinical remnant swab samples. Our assay showed 100% positive (n = 11) and 100% negative (n = 56) agreement. Timely and scalable PCR tests are crucial for limiting further spread of monkeypox. The assay we provide streamlines high-throughput molecular testing for monkeypox virus on existing broadly established platforms used for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing.

EID Nörz D, Tang H, Emmerich P, Giersch K, Fischer N, Schmiedel S, et al. Rapid Adaptation of Established High-Throughput Molecular Testing Infrastructure for Monkeypox Virus Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1765-1769. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220917
AMA Nörz D, Tang H, Emmerich P, et al. Rapid Adaptation of Established High-Throughput Molecular Testing Infrastructure for Monkeypox Virus Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1765-1769. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220917.
APA Nörz, D., Tang, H., Emmerich, P., Giersch, K., Fischer, N., Schmiedel, S....Lütgehetmann, M. (2022). Rapid Adaptation of Established High-Throughput Molecular Testing Infrastructure for Monkeypox Virus Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1765-1769. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220917.

Tracking Emergence and Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in Large and Small Communities by Wastewater Monitoring in Alberta, Canada [PDF - 1.27 MB - 7 pages]
C. Hubert et al.

Wastewater monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 enables early detection and monitoring of the COVID-19 disease burden in communities and can track specific variants of concern. We determined proportions of the Omicron and Delta variants across 30 municipalities covering >75% of the province of Alberta (population 4.5 million), Canada, during November 2021–January 2022. Larger cities Calgary and Edmonton exhibited more rapid emergence of Omicron than did smaller and more remote municipalities. Notable exceptions were Banff, a small international resort town, and Fort McMurray, a medium-sized northern community that has many workers who fly in and out regularly. The integrated wastewater signal revealed that the Omicron variant represented close to 100% of SARS-CoV-2 burden by late December, before the peak in newly diagnosed clinical cases throughout Alberta in mid-January. These findings demonstrate that wastewater monitoring offers early and reliable population-level results for establishing the extent and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

EID Hubert C, Acosta N, Waddell B, Hasing ME, Qiu Y, Fuzzen M, et al. Tracking Emergence and Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in Large and Small Communities by Wastewater Monitoring in Alberta, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1770-1776. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220476
AMA Hubert C, Acosta N, Waddell B, et al. Tracking Emergence and Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in Large and Small Communities by Wastewater Monitoring in Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1770-1776. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220476.
APA Hubert, C., Acosta, N., Waddell, B., Hasing, M. E., Qiu, Y., Fuzzen, M....Lee, B. E. (2022). Tracking Emergence and Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in Large and Small Communities by Wastewater Monitoring in Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1770-1776. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220476.

Age-Dependent Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine and of Healthcare Burden on COVID-19 Deaths, Tokyo, Japan [PDF - 1.84 MB - 8 pages]
Y. K. Ko et al.

COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against death in Japan remains unknown. Furthermore, although evidence indicates that healthcare capacity influences case-fatality risk (CFR), it remains unknown whether this relationship is mediated by age. With a modeling study, we analyzed daily COVID-19 cases and deaths during January–August 2021 by using Tokyo surveillance data to jointly estimate COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against death and age-specific CFR. We also examined daily healthcare operations to determine the association between healthcare burden and age-specific CFR. Among fully vaccinated patients, vaccine effectiveness against death was 88.6% among patients 60–69 years of age, 83.9% among patients 70–79 years of age, 83.5% among patients 80–89 years of age, and 77.7% among patients >90 years of age. A positive association of several indicators of healthcare burden with CFR among patients >70 years of age suggested an age-dependent effect of healthcare burden on CFR in Japan.

EID Ko YK, Murayama H, Yamasaki L, Kinoshita R, Suzuki M, Nishiura H. Age-Dependent Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine and of Healthcare Burden on COVID-19 Deaths, Tokyo, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1777-1784. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220377
AMA Ko YK, Murayama H, Yamasaki L, et al. Age-Dependent Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine and of Healthcare Burden on COVID-19 Deaths, Tokyo, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1777-1784. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220377.
APA Ko, Y. K., Murayama, H., Yamasaki, L., Kinoshita, R., Suzuki, M., & Nishiura, H. (2022). Age-Dependent Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine and of Healthcare Burden on COVID-19 Deaths, Tokyo, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1777-1784. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220377.

Revised Definitions of Tuberculosis Resistance and Treatment Outcomes, France, 2006–2019 [PDF - 604 KB - 9 pages]
Y. Kherabi et al.

Definitions of resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) have been updated. Pre–XDR TB, defined as MDR TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones, and XDR TB, with additional resistance to bedaquiline or linezolid, are frequently associated with treatment failure and toxicity. We retrospectively determined the effects of pre-XDR/XDR TB resistance on outcomes and safety of MDR TB treatment in France. The study included 298 patients treated for MDR TB at 3 reference centers during 2006–2019. Of those, 205 (68.8%) cases were fluoroquinolone-susceptible MDR TB and 93 (31.2%) were pre-XDR/XDR TB. Compared with fluoroquinolone-susceptible MDR TB, pre-XDR/XDR TB was associated with more cavitary lung lesions and bilateral disease and required longer treatment. Overall, 202 patients (67.8%) had favorable treatment outcomes, with no significant difference between pre-XDR/XDR TB (67.7%) and fluoroquinolone-susceptible MDR TB (67.8%; p = 0.99). Pre-XDR/XDR TB was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events.

EID Kherabi Y, Fréchet-Jachym M, Rioux C, Yazdanpanah Y, Méchaï F, Pourcher V, et al. Revised Definitions of Tuberculosis Resistance and Treatment Outcomes, France, 2006–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1796-1804. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220458
AMA Kherabi Y, Fréchet-Jachym M, Rioux C, et al. Revised Definitions of Tuberculosis Resistance and Treatment Outcomes, France, 2006–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1796-1804. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220458.
APA Kherabi, Y., Fréchet-Jachym, M., Rioux, C., Yazdanpanah, Y., Méchaï, F., Pourcher, V....Guglielmetti, L. (2022). Revised Definitions of Tuberculosis Resistance and Treatment Outcomes, France, 2006–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1796-1804. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220458.

Fulminant Transfusion-Associated Hepatitis E Virus Infection Despite Screening, England, 2016–2020 [PDF - 2.01 MB - 9 pages]
H. Harvala et al.

In England, all blood donations are screened in pools of 24 by nucleic acid test (NAT) for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. During 2016–2020, this screening successfully identified and intercepted 1,727 RNA-positive donations. However, review of previous donations from infected platelet donors identified 9 donations in which HEV RNA detection was missed, of which 2 resulted in confirmed transmission: 1 infection resolved with ribavirin treatment, and 1 proceeded to fatal multiorgan failure within a month from infection. Residual risk calculations predict that over the 5-year study period, HEV RNA detection was missed by minipool NAT in 12–23 platelet and 177–354 whole-blood donations, but transmission risk remains undetermined. Although screening has been able to largely eliminate infectious HEV from the blood supply in England, missed detection of low levels of HEV RNA in donated blood can lead to a severe, even fulminant, infection in recipients and could be prevented by more sensitive screening.

EID Harvala H, Reynolds C, Brailsford S, Davison K. Fulminant Transfusion-Associated Hepatitis E Virus Infection Despite Screening, England, 2016–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1805-1813. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220487
AMA Harvala H, Reynolds C, Brailsford S, et al. Fulminant Transfusion-Associated Hepatitis E Virus Infection Despite Screening, England, 2016–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1805-1813. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220487.
APA Harvala, H., Reynolds, C., Brailsford, S., & Davison, K. (2022). Fulminant Transfusion-Associated Hepatitis E Virus Infection Despite Screening, England, 2016–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1805-1813. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220487.

Costs of Tuberculosis at 3 Treatment Centers, Canada, 2010–2016 [PDF - 859 KB - 10 pages]
J. R. Campbell et al.

We estimated costs of managing different forms of tuberculosis (TB) across Canada by conducting a retrospective chart review and cost assessment of patients treated for TB infection, drug-susceptible TB (DS TB), isoniazid-resistant TB, or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) at 3 treatment centers. We included 90 patients each with TB infection and DS TB, 71 with isoniazid-resistant TB, and 62 with MDR TB. Median per-patient costs for TB infection (in 2020 Canadian dollars) were $804 (interquartile range [IQR] $587–$1,205), for DS TB $12,148 (IQR $4,388–$24,842), for isoniazid-resistant TB $19,319 (IQR $7,117–$41,318), and for MDR TB $119,014 (IQR $80,642–$164,015). Compared with costs for managing DS TB, costs were 11.1 (95% CI 9.1–14.3) times lower for TB infection, 1.7 (95% CI 1.3–2.1) times higher for isoniazid-resistant TB, and 8.1 (95% CI 6.1–10.6) times higher for MDR TB. Broadened TB infection treatment could avert high costs associated with managing TB disease.

EID Campbell JR, Nsengiyumva P, Chiang LY, Jamieson F, Khadawardi H, Mah H, et al. Costs of Tuberculosis at 3 Treatment Centers, Canada, 2010–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1814-1823. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220092
AMA Campbell JR, Nsengiyumva P, Chiang LY, et al. Costs of Tuberculosis at 3 Treatment Centers, Canada, 2010–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1814-1823. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220092.
APA Campbell, J. R., Nsengiyumva, P., Chiang, L. Y., Jamieson, F., Khadawardi, H., Mah, H....Brode, S. K. (2022). Costs of Tuberculosis at 3 Treatment Centers, Canada, 2010–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1814-1823. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220092.

Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy [PDF - 1.73 MB - 9 pages]
G. Sgroi et al.

During 2021, we collected blood and serum samples from 135 persons exposed to tick bites in southern Italy. We serologically and molecularly screened for zoonotic tickborne pathogens and only molecularly screened for Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii. Overall, 62 (45.9%) persons tested positive for tickborne pathogens. Coxiella burnetii was detected most frequently (27.4%), along with Rickettsia spp. (21.5%) and Borrelia spp. (10.4%). We detected Candidatus M. mitochondrii DNA in 46 (34.1%) participants who had statistically significant associations to tickborne pathogens (p<0.0001). Phylogenetic analysis of Candidatus M. mitochondrii sequences revealed 5 clades and 8 human sequence types that correlated with vertebrates, Ixodes spp. ticks, and countries in Europe. These data demonstrated a high circulation of tickborne pathogens and Candidatus M. mitochondrii DNA in persons participating in outdoor activities in southern Italy. Our study shows how coordinated surveillance among patients, clinicians, and veterinarians could inform a One Health approach for monitoring and controlling the circulation of tickborne pathogens.

EID Sgroi G, Iatta R, Lovreglio P, Stufano A, Laidoudi Y, Mendoza-Roldan J, et al. Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1824-1832. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220329
AMA Sgroi G, Iatta R, Lovreglio P, et al. Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1824-1832. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220329.
APA Sgroi, G., Iatta, R., Lovreglio, P., Stufano, A., Laidoudi, Y., Mendoza-Roldan, J....Otranto, D. (2022). Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1824-1832. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220329.

Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children Migrating to Australia [PDF - 826 KB - 9 pages]
I. Laemmle-Ruff et al.

In 2015, Australia updated premigration screening for tuberculosis (TB) disease in children 2–10 years of age to include testing for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and enable detection of latent TB infection (LTBI). We analyzed TB screening results in children <15 years of age during November 2015–June 2017. We found 45,060 child applicants were tested with interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (57.7% of tests) or tuberculin skin test (TST) (42.3% of tests). A total of 21 cases of TB were diagnosed: 4 without IGRA or TST, 10 with positive IGRA or TST, and 7 with negative results. LTBI was detected in 3.3% (1,473/44,709) of children, for 30 applicants screened per LTBI case detected. LTBI-associated factors included increasing age, TB contact, origin from a higher TB prevalence region, and testing by TST. Detection of TB and LTBI benefit children, but the updated screening program’s effect on TB in Australia is likely to be limited.

EID Laemmle-Ruff I, Graham SM, Williams B, Horyniak D, Majumdar SS, Paxton GA, et al. Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children Migrating to Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1833-1841. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212426
AMA Laemmle-Ruff I, Graham SM, Williams B, et al. Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children Migrating to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1833-1841. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212426.
APA Laemmle-Ruff, I., Graham, S. M., Williams, B., Horyniak, D., Majumdar, S. S., Paxton, G. A....Trauer, J. M. (2022). Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children Migrating to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1833-1841. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212426.

Medscape CME Activity
Increasing Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease, Idaho, USA, 2008–2019 [PDF - 1.24 MB - 11 pages]
E. M. Dunne et al.

We investigated invasive group A Streptococcus epidemiology in Idaho, USA, during 2008–2019 using surveillance data, medical record review, and emm (M protein gene) typing results. Incidence increased from 1.04 to 4.76 cases/100,000 persons during 2008–2019. emm 1, 12, 28, 11, and 4 were the most common types, and 2 outbreaks were identified. We examined changes in distribution of clinical syndrome, patient demographics, and risk factors by comparing 2008–2013 baseline with 2014–2019 data. Incidence was higher among all age groups during 2014–2019. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome increased from 0% to 6.4% of cases (p = 0.02). We identified no differences in distribution of demographic or risk factors between periods. Results indicated that invasive group A Streptococcus is increasing among the general population of Idaho. Ongoing surveillance of state-level invasive group A Streptococcus cases could help identify outbreaks, track regional trends in incidence, and monitor circulating emm types.

EID Dunne EM, Hutton S, Peterson E, Blackstock AJ, Hahn CG, Turner K, et al. Increasing Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease, Idaho, USA, 2008–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1785-1795. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212129
AMA Dunne EM, Hutton S, Peterson E, et al. Increasing Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease, Idaho, USA, 2008–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1785-1795. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212129.
APA Dunne, E. M., Hutton, S., Peterson, E., Blackstock, A. J., Hahn, C. G., Turner, K....Carter, K. K. (2022). Increasing Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease, Idaho, USA, 2008–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1785-1795. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212129.
Dispatches

Coccidioidomycosis Seroincidence and Risk among Military Personnel, Naval Air Station Lemoore, San Joaquin Valley, California, USA [PDF - 463 KB - 5 pages]
G. C. Ellis et al.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study that tested 2,000 US military personnel for Coccidioides antibodies in a disease-endemic region. The overall incidence of seroconversion was 0.5 cases/100 person-years; 12.5% of persons who seroconverted had illnesses requiring medical care. No significant association was found between demographic characteristics and seroconversion or disease.

EID Ellis GC, Lanteri CA, Hsieh H, Graf P, Pineda G, Crum-Cianflone NF, et al. Coccidioidomycosis Seroincidence and Risk among Military Personnel, Naval Air Station Lemoore, San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1842-1846. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220652
AMA Ellis GC, Lanteri CA, Hsieh H, et al. Coccidioidomycosis Seroincidence and Risk among Military Personnel, Naval Air Station Lemoore, San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1842-1846. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220652.
APA Ellis, G. C., Lanteri, C. A., Hsieh, H., Graf, P., Pineda, G., Crum-Cianflone, N. F....Deiss, R. (2022). Coccidioidomycosis Seroincidence and Risk among Military Personnel, Naval Air Station Lemoore, San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1842-1846. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220652.

Epidemiologic Features and Control Measures during Monkeypox Outbreak, Spain, June 2022 [PDF - 719 KB - 5 pages]
B. Suárez Rodríguez et al.

During June 2022, Spain was one of the countries most affected worldwide by a multicountry monkeypox outbreak with chains of transmission without identified links to disease-endemic countries. We provide epidemiologic features of cases reported in Spain and the coordinated measures taken to respond to this outbreak.

EID Suárez Rodríguez B, Guzmán Herrador BR, Díaz Franco A, Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M, del Amo Valero J, Aginagalde Llorente A, et al. Epidemiologic Features and Control Measures during Monkeypox Outbreak, Spain, June 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1847-1851. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.221051
AMA Suárez Rodríguez B, Guzmán Herrador BR, Díaz Franco A, et al. Epidemiologic Features and Control Measures during Monkeypox Outbreak, Spain, June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1847-1851. doi:10.3201/eid2809.221051.
APA Suárez Rodríguez, B., Guzmán Herrador, B. R., Díaz Franco, A., Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M., del Amo Valero, J., Aginagalde Llorente, A....Sierra Moros, M. (2022). Epidemiologic Features and Control Measures during Monkeypox Outbreak, Spain, June 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1847-1851. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.221051.

Susceptibility of Wild Canids to SARS-CoV-2 [PDF - 843 KB - 4 pages]
S. M. Porter et al.

We assessed 2 wild canid species, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans), for susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. After experimental inoculation, red foxes became infected and shed infectious virus. Conversely, experimentally challenged coyotes did not become infected; therefore, coyotes are unlikely to be competent hosts for SARS-CoV-2.

EID Porter SM, Hartwig AE, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Bosco-Lauth AM, Root J. Susceptibility of Wild Canids to SARS-CoV-2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1852-1855. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220223
AMA Porter SM, Hartwig AE, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, et al. Susceptibility of Wild Canids to SARS-CoV-2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1852-1855. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220223.
APA Porter, S. M., Hartwig, A. E., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H., Bosco-Lauth, A. M., & Root, J. (2022). Susceptibility of Wild Canids to SARS-CoV-2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1852-1855. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220223.

Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022 [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
Y. M. Mefsin et al.

Our analysis of data collected from multiple epidemics in Hong Kong indicated a shorter serial interval and generation time of infections with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. The age-specific case-fatality risk for Omicron BA.2.2 case-patients without complete primary vaccination was comparable to that of persons infected with ancestral strains in earlier waves.

EID Mefsin YM, Chen D, Bond HS, Lin Y, Cheung JK, Wong JY, et al. Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1856-1858. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220613
AMA Mefsin YM, Chen D, Bond HS, et al. Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1856-1858. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220613.
APA Mefsin, Y. M., Chen, D., Bond, H. S., Lin, Y., Cheung, J. K., Wong, J. Y....Cowling, B. J. (2022). Epidemiology of Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant, Hong Kong, January–March 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1856-1858. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220613.

Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies [PDF - 959 KB - 4 pages]
M. Loesche et al.

Given widespread use of spike antibody in generating coronavirus disease vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies are increasingly used to indicate previous infection in serologic surveys. However, longitudinal kinetics and seroreversion are poorly defined. We found substantial seroreversion of nucleocapsid total immunoglobulin, underscoring the need to account for seroreversion in seroepidemiologic studies.

EID Loesche M, Karlson EW, Talabi O, Zhou G, Boutin N, Atchley R, et al. Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1859-1862. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220729
AMA Loesche M, Karlson EW, Talabi O, et al. Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1859-1862. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220729.
APA Loesche, M., Karlson, E. W., Talabi, O., Zhou, G., Boutin, N., Atchley, R....Nilles, E. J. (2022). Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Kinetics, Seroreversion, and Implications for Seroepidemiologic Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1859-1862. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220729.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Incidence, South Korea, 2001–2019 [PDF - 1013 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Kim and B. Jeong

We found increasing trends of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) cases and annual incidence in South Korea during 2001–2019. We noted relatively low (5.7%) distribution of familial CJD. An unusually high percentage (≈1%) of patients were in the 30–39 age group, which should prompt a preemptive CJD control system.

EID Kim Y, Jeong B. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Incidence, South Korea, 2001–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1863-1866. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212050
AMA Kim Y, Jeong B. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Incidence, South Korea, 2001–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1863-1866. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212050.
APA Kim, Y., & Jeong, B. (2022). Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Incidence, South Korea, 2001–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1863-1866. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212050.

Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections, Ecuador [PDF - 308 KB - 3 pages]
W. J. Sears et al.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworms are zoonotic parasites that can infect humans. To detect autochthonous transmission, we analyzed human fecal samples collected in 2000. Multiparallel quantitative PCR detected infection in persons who had never traveled outside Ecuador. These data indicate human transmission of A. ceylanicum in the Americas, although endemicity remains unknown.

EID Sears WJ, Cardenas J, Kubofcik J, Nutman TB, Cooper PJ. Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections, Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1867-1869. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220248
AMA Sears WJ, Cardenas J, Kubofcik J, et al. Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1867-1869. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220248.
APA Sears, W. J., Cardenas, J., Kubofcik, J., Nutman, T. B., & Cooper, P. J. (2022). Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1867-1869. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220248.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, Grenada, West Indies [PDF - 438 KB - 3 pages]
P. A. Zendejas-Heredia et al.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworms are recognized agents of human infection in the Asia–Pacific region. We investigated prevalence of zoonotic hookworm infections in dogs in Grenada in 2021; 40.8% were infected by hookworms, including Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Surveillance of this parasite in dogs and humans is needed in tropical/subtropical countries in the Americas.

EID Zendejas-Heredia PA, Colella V, Macpherson MA, Sylvester W, Gasser RB, Macpherson CL, et al. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, Grenada, West Indies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1870-1872. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220634
AMA Zendejas-Heredia PA, Colella V, Macpherson MA, et al. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, Grenada, West Indies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1870-1872. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220634.
APA Zendejas-Heredia, P. A., Colella, V., Macpherson, M. A., Sylvester, W., Gasser, R. B., Macpherson, C. L....Traub, R. J. (2022). Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, Grenada, West Indies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1870-1872. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220634.

Evaluation of Effectiveness of Global COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign [PDF - 834 KB - 4 pages]
D. He et al.

To model estimated deaths averted by COVID-19 vaccines, we used state-of-the-art mathematical modeling, likelihood-based inference, and reported COVID-19 death and vaccination data. We estimated that >1.5 million deaths were averted in 12 countries. Our model can help assess effectiveness of the vaccination program, which is crucial for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic.

EID He D, Ali S, Fan G, Gao D, Song H, Lou Y, et al. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Global COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1873-1876. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212226
AMA He D, Ali S, Fan G, et al. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Global COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1873-1876. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212226.
APA He, D., Ali, S., Fan, G., Gao, D., Song, H., Lou, Y....Stone, L. (2022). Evaluation of Effectiveness of Global COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1873-1876. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212226.

Laboratory Misidentifications Resulting from Taxonomic Changes to Bacillus cereus Group Species, 2018–2022 [PDF - 1.17 MB - 5 pages]
L. M. Carroll et al.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is being applied increasingly to Bacillus cereus group species; however, misinterpretation of WGS results may have severe consequences. We report 3 cases, 1 of which was an outbreak, in which misinterpretation of B. cereus group WGS results hindered communication within public health and industrial laboratories.

EID Carroll LM, Matle I, Kovac J, Cheng RA, Wiedmann M. Laboratory Misidentifications Resulting from Taxonomic Changes to Bacillus cereus Group Species, 2018–2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1877-1881. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220293
AMA Carroll LM, Matle I, Kovac J, et al. Laboratory Misidentifications Resulting from Taxonomic Changes to Bacillus cereus Group Species, 2018–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1877-1881. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220293.
APA Carroll, L. M., Matle, I., Kovac, J., Cheng, R. A., & Wiedmann, M. (2022). Laboratory Misidentifications Resulting from Taxonomic Changes to Bacillus cereus Group Species, 2018–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1877-1881. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220293.

Experimental Infection of Peromyscus Species Rodents with Sin Nombre Virus [PDF - 888 KB - 4 pages]
K. Quizon et al.

We demonstrate that 6 distinct Peromyscus rodent species are permissive to experimental infection with Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV). Viral RNA and SNV antibodies were detected in members of all 6 species. P. leucopus mice demonstrated markedly higher viral and antibody titers than P. maniculatus mice, the established primary hosts for SNV.

EID Quizon K, Holloway K, Iranpour M, Warner BM, Deschambault Y, Soule G, et al. Experimental Infection of Peromyscus Species Rodents with Sin Nombre Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1882-1885. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220509
AMA Quizon K, Holloway K, Iranpour M, et al. Experimental Infection of Peromyscus Species Rodents with Sin Nombre Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1882-1885. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220509.
APA Quizon, K., Holloway, K., Iranpour, M., Warner, B. M., Deschambault, Y., Soule, G....Safronetz, D. (2022). Experimental Infection of Peromyscus Species Rodents with Sin Nombre Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1882-1885. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220509.

Acute Q Fever with Atrioventricular Block, Israel [PDF - 1.72 MB - 4 pages]
K. Badarni et al.

Cardiac involvement in acute Q fever is rare. We report 2 cases of an advanced atrioventricular block in young adult patients in Israel who sought care for acute Q fever without evidence of myocarditis. Q fever should be suspected in unexplained conduction abnormalities, especially in febrile young patients residing in disease-endemic areas.

EID Badarni K, Blich M, Atiya-nasagi Y, Ghanem-zoubi N. Acute Q Fever with Atrioventricular Block, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1886-1889. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212565
AMA Badarni K, Blich M, Atiya-nasagi Y, et al. Acute Q Fever with Atrioventricular Block, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1886-1889. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212565.
APA Badarni, K., Blich, M., Atiya-nasagi, Y., & Ghanem-zoubi, N. (2022). Acute Q Fever with Atrioventricular Block, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1886-1889. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212565.

Sporadic Occurrence of Enteroaggregative Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Similar to 2011 Outbreak Strain [PDF - 1.25 MB - 5 pages]
C. E. Coipan et al.

We describe the recent detection of 3 Shiga toxin–producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolates from patients and 1 from pork in the Netherlands that were genetically highly similar to isolates from the 2011 large-scale outbreak in Europe. Our findings stress the importance of safeguarding food supply production chains to prevent future outbreaks.

EID Coipan CE, Friesema IH, van den Beld M, Bosch T, Schlager S, van der Voort M, et al. Sporadic Occurrence of Enteroaggregative Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Similar to 2011 Outbreak Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1890-1894. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220037
AMA Coipan CE, Friesema IH, van den Beld M, et al. Sporadic Occurrence of Enteroaggregative Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Similar to 2011 Outbreak Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1890-1894. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220037.
APA Coipan, C. E., Friesema, I. H., van den Beld, M., Bosch, T., Schlager, S., van der Voort, M....Franz, E. (2022). Sporadic Occurrence of Enteroaggregative Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Similar to 2011 Outbreak Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1890-1894. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220037.

Sequestration and Destruction of Rinderpest Virus–Containing Material 10 Years after Eradication [PDF - 824 KB - 4 pages]
C. M. Budke et al.

In 2021, the world marked 10 years free from rinderpest. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Organisation for Animal Health have since made great strides in consolidating, sequencing, and destroying stocks of rinderpest virus–containing material, currently kept by only 14 known institutions. This progress must continue.

EID Budke CM, Pfeiffer DU, Jones BA, Fournié G, Kim Y, Marrana M, et al. Sequestration and Destruction of Rinderpest Virus–Containing Material 10 Years after Eradication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1895-1898. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220297
AMA Budke CM, Pfeiffer DU, Jones BA, et al. Sequestration and Destruction of Rinderpest Virus–Containing Material 10 Years after Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1895-1898. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220297.
APA Budke, C. M., Pfeiffer, D. U., Jones, B. A., Fournié, G., Kim, Y., Marrana, M....Simmons, H. L. (2022). Sequestration and Destruction of Rinderpest Virus–Containing Material 10 Years after Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1895-1898. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220297.

International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi [PDF - 2.19 MB - 5 pages]
J. Val-Calvo et al.

A multidrug-resistant clone of the animal and human pathogen Rhodococcus equi, MDR-RE 2287, has been circulating among equine farms in the United States since the 2000s. We report the detection of MDR-RE 2287 outside the United States. Our finding highlights the risk for MDR-RE spreading internationally with horse movements.

EID Val-Calvo J, Darcy J, Gibbons J, Creighton A, Egan C, Buckley T, et al. International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1899-1903. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220222
AMA Val-Calvo J, Darcy J, Gibbons J, et al. International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1899-1903. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220222.
APA Val-Calvo, J., Darcy, J., Gibbons, J., Creighton, A., Egan, C., Buckley, T....Vázquez-Boland, J. A. (2022). International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1899-1903. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220222.
Research Letters

Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 302 KB - 2 pages]
K. Bradley et al.

We report a fatal infection in a 65-year-old immunocompromised male patient caused by pan-triazole–resistant Aspergillus fumigatus containing a TR34/L98H genetic mutation linked to agricultural fungicide use. Clinical and environmental surveillance of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus is needed in the United States to prevent spread and guide healthcare and agricultural practices.

EID Bradley K, Le-Mahajan A, Morris B, Peritz T, Chiller T, Forsberg K, et al. Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1904-1905. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220517
AMA Bradley K, Le-Mahajan A, Morris B, et al. Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1904-1905. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220517.
APA Bradley, K., Le-Mahajan, A., Morris, B., Peritz, T., Chiller, T., Forsberg, K....Gould, J. M. (2022). Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1904-1905. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220517.

Correlation between Clinical and Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance, Oregon, USA [PDF - 1005 KB - 3 pages]
D. Kaya et al.

SARS-CoV-2 variant proportions in a population can be estimated through genomic sequencing of clinical specimens or wastewater samples. We demonstrate strong pairwise correlation between statewide variant estimates in Oregon, USA, derived from both methods (correlation coefficient 0.97). Our results provide crucial evidence of the effectiveness of community-level genomic surveillance.

EID Kaya D, Falender R, Radniecki T, Geniza M, Cieslak P, Kelly C, et al. Correlation between Clinical and Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance, Oregon, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1906-1908. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220938
AMA Kaya D, Falender R, Radniecki T, et al. Correlation between Clinical and Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1906-1908. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220938.
APA Kaya, D., Falender, R., Radniecki, T., Geniza, M., Cieslak, P., Kelly, C....Sutton, M. (2022). Correlation between Clinical and Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1906-1908. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220938.

Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with Lack of Intent to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine, Japan [PDF - 232 KB - 2 pages]
T. Arashiro et al.

Persons in Japan who did not intend to receive COVID-19 vaccines after widespread rollout were less likely than others to engage in preventive measures or to be afraid of getting infected or infecting others. They were also not less likely to engage in potentially high-risk behaviors, suggesting similar or higher exposure risks.

EID Arashiro T, Arima Y, Stucky A, Smith C, Hibberd M, Ariyoshi K, et al. Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with Lack of Intent to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1909-1910. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220300
AMA Arashiro T, Arima Y, Stucky A, et al. Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with Lack of Intent to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1909-1910. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220300.
APA Arashiro, T., Arima, Y., Stucky, A., Smith, C., Hibberd, M., Ariyoshi, K....Suzuki, M. (2022). Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with Lack of Intent to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1909-1910. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220300.

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant 24 Days after Non-Omicron Infection, Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 372 KB - 3 pages]
A. G. Seid et al.

A 42-year-old man, with up-to-date COVID-19 vaccination, experienced symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in December 2021. Mutation tests suggested a non-Omicron variant. After his recovery, and 24 days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, he had onset of symptomatic infection with the BA.1.1 (Omicron) variant, which was confirmed by whole-genome sequencing.

EID Seid AG, Yirko T, Sayeed S, Plipat N. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant 24 Days after Non-Omicron Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1911-1913. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220539
AMA Seid AG, Yirko T, Sayeed S, et al. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant 24 Days after Non-Omicron Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1911-1913. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220539.
APA Seid, A. G., Yirko, T., Sayeed, S., & Plipat, N. (2022). Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant 24 Days after Non-Omicron Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1911-1913. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220539.

Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Ferrets [PDF - 916 KB - 3 pages]
J. A. Pulit-Penaloza et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have spread rapidly throughout North American flyways in recent months, affecting wild birds in over 40 states. We evaluated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a representative virus using a ferret model and examined replication kinetics of this virus in human respiratory tract cells.

EID Pulit-Penaloza JA, Belser JA, Brock N, Thakur P, Tumpey TM, Maines TR. Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Ferrets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1913-1915. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220879
AMA Pulit-Penaloza JA, Belser JA, Brock N, et al. Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1913-1915. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220879.
APA Pulit-Penaloza, J. A., Belser, J. A., Brock, N., Thakur, P., Tumpey, T. M., & Maines, T. R. (2022). Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1913-1915. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220879.

Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Suggestive of Single Events of Spillover to Cattle, Germany [PDF - 790 KB - 3 pages]
K. Wernike et al.

Human infection with SARS-CoV-2 poses a risk for transmission to animals. To characterize the risk for cattle, we serologically investigated 1,000 samples collected from cattle in Germany in late 2021. Eleven antibody-positive samples indicated that cattle may be occasionally infected by contact with SARS-CoV-2–positive keepers, but we found no indication of further spread.

EID Wernike K, Böttcher J, Amelung S, Albrecht K, Gärtner T, Donat K, et al. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Suggestive of Single Events of Spillover to Cattle, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1916-1918. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220125
AMA Wernike K, Böttcher J, Amelung S, et al. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Suggestive of Single Events of Spillover to Cattle, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1916-1918. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220125.
APA Wernike, K., Böttcher, J., Amelung, S., Albrecht, K., Gärtner, T., Donat, K....Beer, M. (2022). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Suggestive of Single Events of Spillover to Cattle, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1916-1918. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220125.

Effect of Frequent SARS-CoV-2 Testing on Weekly Case Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities, Florida, USA [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
L. Allan-Blitz et al.

We analyzed 1,292,165 SARS-CoV-2 test results from residents and employees of 361 long-term care facilities in Florida, USA. A 1% increase in testing resulted in a 0.08% reduction in cases 3 weeks after testing began. Increasing SARS-CoV-2 testing frequency is a viable tool for reducing virus transmission in these facilities.

EID Allan-Blitz L, Aboabdo B, Turner I, Klausner JD. Effect of Frequent SARS-CoV-2 Testing on Weekly Case Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1918-1920. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212577
AMA Allan-Blitz L, Aboabdo B, Turner I, et al. Effect of Frequent SARS-CoV-2 Testing on Weekly Case Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1918-1920. doi:10.3201/eid2809.212577.
APA Allan-Blitz, L., Aboabdo, B., Turner, I., & Klausner, J. D. (2022). Effect of Frequent SARS-CoV-2 Testing on Weekly Case Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1918-1920. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.212577.

Highly Divergent SARS-CoV-2 Alpha Variant in Chronically Infected Immunocompromised Person [PDF - 1.07 MB - 4 pages]
B. Munnink et al.

We detected a highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an immunocompromised person several months after the latest detection of the Alpha variant in the Netherlands. The patient was infected for 42 weeks despite several treatment regimens and disappearance of most clinical symptoms. We identified several potential immune escape mutations in the spike protein.

EID Munnink B, Nijhuis R, Worp N, Boter M, Weller B, Verstrepen BE, et al. Highly Divergent SARS-CoV-2 Alpha Variant in Chronically Infected Immunocompromised Person. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1920-1923. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220875
AMA Munnink B, Nijhuis R, Worp N, et al. Highly Divergent SARS-CoV-2 Alpha Variant in Chronically Infected Immunocompromised Person. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1920-1923. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220875.
APA Munnink, B., Nijhuis, R., Worp, N., Boter, M., Weller, B., Verstrepen, B. E....Koopmans, M. (2022). Highly Divergent SARS-CoV-2 Alpha Variant in Chronically Infected Immunocompromised Person. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1920-1923. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220875.

Molecular Epidemiology of Blastomyces gilchristii Clusters, Minnesota, USA [PDF - 365 KB - 3 pages]
U. R. Bagal et al.

We characterized 2 clusters of blastomycosis cases in Minnesota, USA, using whole-genome sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Blastomyces gilchristii was confirmed as the cause of infection. Genomic analyses corresponded with epidemiologic findings for cases of B. gilchristii infections, demonstrating the utility of genomic methods for future blastomycosis outbreak investigations.

EID Bagal UR, Ireland M, Gross A, Fischer J, Bentz M, Berkow EL, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastomyces gilchristii Clusters, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1924-1926. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220392
AMA Bagal UR, Ireland M, Gross A, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastomyces gilchristii Clusters, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1924-1926. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220392.
APA Bagal, U. R., Ireland, M., Gross, A., Fischer, J., Bentz, M., Berkow, E. L....Chow, N. A. (2022). Molecular Epidemiology of Blastomyces gilchristii Clusters, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1924-1926. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220392.

Tropheryma whipplei Intestinal Colonization in Migrant Children, Greece [PDF - 1.48 MB - 3 pages]
S. Makka et al.

We obtained fecal samples from migrant children <12 years of age throughout hotspots in Greece and tested them for Tropheryma whipplei by using a quantitative PCR assay. We identified 6 genotypes of T. whipplei, 4 of which are newly described. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of T. whipplei in these regions.

EID Makka S, Papadogiannaki I, Voulgari-Kokota A, Georgakopoulou T, Koutantou M, Angelakis E. Tropheryma whipplei Intestinal Colonization in Migrant Children, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1926-1928. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220068
AMA Makka S, Papadogiannaki I, Voulgari-Kokota A, et al. Tropheryma whipplei Intestinal Colonization in Migrant Children, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1926-1928. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220068.
APA Makka, S., Papadogiannaki, I., Voulgari-Kokota, A., Georgakopoulou, T., Koutantou, M., & Angelakis, E. (2022). Tropheryma whipplei Intestinal Colonization in Migrant Children, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1926-1928. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220068.

Arthritis Caused by Nannizziopsis obscura, France [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
H. Mascitti et al.

Nannizziopsis spp., fungi responsible for emerging diseases, are rarely involved in human bone and joint infections. We present a rare case of septic arthritis with necrotizing cellulitis caused by N. obscura in a patient in France who had undergone kidney transplant. Rapid, aggressive medical and surgical management led to a favorable outcome.

EID Mascitti H, Sivadon-Tardy V, Bougnoux M, Duran C, Tordjman M, Colombier M, et al. Arthritis Caused by Nannizziopsis obscura, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1929-1931. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220375
AMA Mascitti H, Sivadon-Tardy V, Bougnoux M, et al. Arthritis Caused by Nannizziopsis obscura, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1929-1931. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220375.
APA Mascitti, H., Sivadon-Tardy, V., Bougnoux, M., Duran, C., Tordjman, M., Colombier, M....Dinh, A. (2022). Arthritis Caused by Nannizziopsis obscura, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1929-1931. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220375.

Invasive Meningococcal X Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Brazil [PDF - 268 KB - 2 pages]
L. O. Fukasawa et al.

Invasive meningococcal disease persists as a fulminant disorder worldwide. Although cases caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X (MenX) occur infrequently, outbreaks have been reported in countries in Africa in recent decades. We report 2 cases of MenX invasive meningococcal disease in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2021 and 2022, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

EID Fukasawa LO, Liphaus BL, Gonçalves M, Higa FT, Camargo CH, Carvalhanas T, et al. Invasive Meningococcal X Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1931-1932. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220531
AMA Fukasawa LO, Liphaus BL, Gonçalves M, et al. Invasive Meningococcal X Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1931-1932. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220531.
APA Fukasawa, L. O., Liphaus, B. L., Gonçalves, M., Higa, F. T., Camargo, C. H., Carvalhanas, T....Lemos, A. S. (2022). Invasive Meningococcal X Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1931-1932. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220531.

Feline Panleukopenia Virus in Dogs from Italy and Egypt [PDF - 458 KB - 3 pages]
G. Diakoudi et al.

Canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are variants of Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. We identified and characterized FPV in dogs from Italy and Egypt using genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Cost-effective sequencing strategies should be used to monitor interspecies spread, evolution dynamics, and potential host jumping of FPV.

EID Diakoudi G, Desario C, Lanave G, Salucci S, Ndiana LA, Zarea A, et al. Feline Panleukopenia Virus in Dogs from Italy and Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1933-1935. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220388
AMA Diakoudi G, Desario C, Lanave G, et al. Feline Panleukopenia Virus in Dogs from Italy and Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1933-1935. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220388.
APA Diakoudi, G., Desario, C., Lanave, G., Salucci, S., Ndiana, L. A., Zarea, A....Decaro, N. (2022). Feline Panleukopenia Virus in Dogs from Italy and Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1933-1935. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220388.

Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus Endothelial Infection, California, USA [PDF - 2.47 MB - 3 pages]
L. Lawrence et al.

We describe 3 patients in California, USA, with trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus (TSPyV) infection of endothelium after steroid administration. We detected TSPyV RNA in tissue specimens by in situ hybridization, which revealed localization to endothelial cells. These cases suggest that diseases associated with endothelial inflammation could be associated with TSPyV infection.

EID Lawrence L, Wang A, Charville G, Toland A, Pinsky B, Natkunam Y, et al. Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus Endothelial Infection, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1935-1937. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220856
AMA Lawrence L, Wang A, Charville G, et al. Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus Endothelial Infection, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1935-1937. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220856.
APA Lawrence, L., Wang, A., Charville, G., Toland, A., Pinsky, B., Natkunam, Y....Gratzinger, D. (2022). Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus Endothelial Infection, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1935-1937. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220856.
Books and Media

Plagues Upon the Earth: Disease and the Course of Human History [PDF - 346 KB - 1 page]
W. Partin
EID Partin W. Plagues Upon the Earth: Disease and the Course of Human History. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1938. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220812
AMA Partin W. Plagues Upon the Earth: Disease and the Course of Human History. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1938. doi:10.3201/eid2809.220812.
APA Partin, W. (2022). Plagues Upon the Earth: Disease and the Course of Human History. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1938. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.220812.
About the Cover

Agile Thinking Slays the Chimaera [PDF - 1.57 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Agile Thinking Slays the Chimaera. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1939-1940. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.ac2809
AMA Breedlove B. Agile Thinking Slays the Chimaera. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1939-1940. doi:10.3201/eid2809.ac2809.
APA Breedlove, B. (2022). Agile Thinking Slays the Chimaera. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1939-1940. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.ac2809.
News and Notes

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2022 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts [PDF - 2.49 MB - 297 pages]
EID International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2022 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(9):1. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.nn2809
AMA International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2022 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(9):1. doi:10.3201/eid2809.nn2809.
APA (2022). International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2022 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(9), 1. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2809.nn2809.
Page created: August 22, 2022
Page updated: October 18, 2022
Page reviewed: October 18, 2022
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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