We sought to better understand national approaches for managing potential human health risks during outbreaks of infection with avian influenza A(H5N8) virus during 2016–17. Twenty-three countries in the Union/European Economic Area and Israel participated in this study. Risk to the general public was assessed as low in 18 countries and medium in 1 country. Of 524 exposed persons identified, 274 were passively monitored and 250 were actively monitored. Of 29 persons tested, all were negative for H5N8 virus. Vaccination and antiviral drug recommendations varied across countries. A high level of personal protection was recommended although a low risk was assessed. No transmission of this virus to humans was identified.
Adlhoch C, Dabrera G, Penttinen P, Pebody R. Protective Measures for Humans against Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Outbreaks in 22 European Union/European Economic Area Countries and Israel, 2016–17. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(10):1-8. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2410.180269
Adlhoch C, Dabrera G, Penttinen P, et al. Protective Measures for Humans against Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Outbreaks in 22 European Union/European Economic Area Countries and Israel, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(10):1-8. doi:10.3201/eid2410.180269.
Adlhoch, C., Dabrera, G., Penttinen, P., & Pebody, R. (2018). Protective Measures for Humans against Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Outbreaks in 22 European Union/European Economic Area Countries and Israel, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(10), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2410.180269.
The World Health Organization R&D Blueprint aims to accelerate the availability of medical technologies during epidemics by focusing on a list of prioritized emerging diseases for which medical countermeasures are insufficient or nonexistent. The prioritization process has 3 components: a Delphi process to narrow down a list of potential priority diseases, a multicriteria decision analysis to rank the short list of diseases, and a final Delphi round to arrive at a final list of 10 diseases. A group of international experts applied this process in January 2017, resulting in a list of 10 priority diseases. The robustness of the list was tested by performing a sensitivity analysis. The new process corrected major shortcomings in the pre–R&D Blueprint approach to disease prioritization and increased confidence in the results.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a recognized complication of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In 2015, the World Health Organization reported 2.2 million new cases of nonbacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB; some of these patients probably had undiagnosed CPA. In October 2016, the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections convened an international expert panel to develop a case definition of CPA for resource-constrained settings. This panel defined CPA as illness for >3 months and all of the following: 1) weight loss, persistent cough, and/or hemoptysis; 2) chest images showing progressive cavitary infiltrates and/or a fungal ball and/or pericavitary fibrosis or infiltrates or pleural thickening; and 3) a positive Aspergillus IgG assay result or other evidence of Aspergillus infection. The proposed definition will facilitate advancements in research, practice, and policy in lower- and middle-income countries as well as in resource-constrained settings.
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