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West Nile virus

West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States.  It is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Cases of WNV occur during mosquito season, which starts in the summer and continues through fall. 

2022

Early Release West Nile Virus Transmission by Solid Organ Transplantation and Considerations for Organ Donor Screening Practices, United States
Raymond A. Soto et al. Volume 28, Number 2—February 2022

2021

Ecologic Determinants of West Nile Virus Seroprevalence among Equids, Brazil
Edmilson F. de Oliveira-Filho et al. Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021

2020

West Nile Virus in Farmed Crocodiles, Zambia, 2019
Edgar Simulundu et al. Volume 26, Number 4—April 2020

2019

Phylogenetic Analysis of Bird-Virulent West Nile Virus Strain, Greece
George Valiakos et al. Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 West Nile Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa, 2010–2018
Jumari Steyn et al. Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 Lack of Efficacy of High-Titered Immunoglobulin in Patients with West Nile Virus Central Nervous System Disease
John W. Gnann et al. Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 Economic Burden of West Nile Virus Disease, Quebec, Canada, 2012–2013
Najwa Ouhoummane et al. Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union
Dragoslav Domanović et al. Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 Acute and Delayed Deaths after West Nile Virus Infection, Texas, USA, 2002–2012
David C.E. Philpott et al. Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 West Nile Virus Infection in Travelers Returning to United Kingdom from South Africa
Vivak Parkash et al. Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 Cumulative Incidence of West Nile Virus Infection, Continental United States, 1999–2016
Shannon E. Ronca et al. Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019

2018

Podcast Terrestrial Bird Migration and West Nile Virus Circulation, United States
Daniele Swetnam et al. Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Use of Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Infection in Patient Returning to Belgium from Hungary
Elke Wollants et al. Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018

2017

West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008–2015
Marietjie Venter et al. Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017 Usutu Virus RNA in Mosquitoes, Israel, 2014–2015
Batya Mannasse et al. Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017 Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016
Charles Y. Chiu et al. Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017 Mosquito: A Discovery Channel Documentary
Charles H. Calisher Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017 West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014
Diana Martinez et al. Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017 West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014
Megan E. Cahill et al. Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017 Correlation of West Nile Virus Incidence in Donated Blood with West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rates, United States, 2010–2012
Edouard Betsem et al. Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017

2016

Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria
Magdalena Baymakova et al. Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016 Pandemic
Jennifer B. Nuzzo Volume 22, Number 10—October 2016 Mutation in West Nile Virus Structural Protein prM during Human Infection
Yaniv Lustig et al. Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016 Podcast Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses
Jakapat Vanichanan et al. Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960–2012
Natalie A. Prow et al. Volume 22, Number 8—August 2016 Vectorborne Infections, Mali
David Safronetz et al. Volume 22, Number 2—February 2016

2015

Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses
Stephanie M. Lim et al. Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015 Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States
James L. Hadler et al. Volume 21, Number 7—July 2015 West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012
Diana T. Cervantes et al. Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic
Koray Ergunay et al. Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015

2014

Putative New West Nile Virus Lineage in Uranotaenia unguiculata Mosquitoes, Austria, 2013
Karin Pachler et al. Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014 Podcast Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013
Sridhar V. Basavaraju et al. Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Human Infection with West Nile Virus, Xinjiang, China, 2011
Zhi Lu et al. Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 Serologic Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dogs, Africa
Bernard Davoust et al. Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Genome, Iran
Nariman Shah-Hosseini et al. Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 Antibodies against West Nile and Shuni Viruses in Veterinarians, South Africa
Charmaine van Eeden et al. Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 Deadly Outbreaks: How Medical Detectives Save Lives Threatened by Killer Pandemics, Exotic Viruses, and Drug-Resistant Parasites
J. Lyle Conrad Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014 Co-circulation of West Nile Virus Variants, Arizona, USA, 2010
Jessica A. Plante et al. Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014

2013

West Nile Virus, Texas, USA, 2012
Kristy O. Murray et al. Volume 19, Number 11—November 2013 Continued Evolution of West Nile Virus, Houston, Texas, USA, 2002–2012
Brian R. Mann et al. Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013 Podcast West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients
Dianna M. Blau et al. Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012
Francisco Llorente et al. Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013 Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause
Cynthia S. Goldsmith et al. Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013 West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain in Greece, 2012
Serafeim C. Chaintoutis et al. Volume 19, Number 5—May 2013 West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece
Lieselotte Cnops et al. Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013 West Nile Virus Infection among Humans, Texas, USA, 2002–2011
Melissa S. Nolan et al. Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

2012

West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009
Dewald Zaayman et al. Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012 West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Imported into Germany
Jörg Schultze-Amberger et al. Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012 Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010
Jennifer L. Kwan et al. Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012 Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Infection among Humans, Morocco
Hicham El Rhaffouli et al. Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012 Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011
Melinda J. Frost et al. Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012 West Nile Virus Lineage 2 from Blood Donor, Greece
Anna Papa et al. Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012 Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008
Paul J. Carson et al. Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012 Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010
Federico Gobbi et al. Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012

2011

Rift Valley and West Nile Virus Antibodies in Camels, North Africa
Mehdi El-Harrak et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 West Nile Fever Outbreak in Horses and Humans, Spain, 2010
Ignacio García-Bocanegra et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 West Nile Virus Infection of Birds, Mexico
Sergio Guerrero-Sánchez et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010
Kostas Danis et al. Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011 Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa
Marietjie Venter et al. Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007
Judy A. St. Leger et al. Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA
Ryan M. Carney et al. Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman
Nardeen Mickail et al. Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 West Nile Virus Infection, Assam, India
Abdul M. Khan et al. Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011 Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Lineage 2, Greece, 2010
Anna Papa et al. Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011 Evolution of New Genotype of West Nile Virus in North America
Allison R. McMullen et al. Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011 Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates, Italy, 2008–2009
Giada Rossini et al. Volume 17, Number 5—May 2011 Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya
A. Desiree LaBeaud et al. Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011 Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008
Jung-Yong Yeh et al. Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

2010

West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia
David Roth et al. Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010 West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006
Jeffrey W. Bethel et al. Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010 Fatal Human Case of West Nile Disease, Mexico, 2009
Clara Rios-Ibarra et al. Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010 Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus, Spain
Ana Vázquez et al. Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010 Economic Cost Analysis of West Nile Virus Outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005
Loren M. Barber et al. Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010 Transmission of West Nile Virus during Horse Autopsy
Marietjie Venter et al. Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010 Surveillance for West Nile Virus in American White Pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006–2007
Gregory P. Johnson et al. Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010

2009

West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008
Jordi Figuerola et al. Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009 West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States
Christina B. Planitzer et al. Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009 West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007
Elizabeth A. Hunsperger et al. Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa
Marietjie Venter et al. Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009 Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California
William K. Reisen et al. Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009

2008

Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California
William K. Reisen et al. Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008 Ecologic Factors Associated with West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States
Heidi E. Brown et al. Volume 14, Number 10—October 2008 West Nile Virus in Golden Eagles, Spain, 2007
Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero et al. Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008 Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina
Kevin A. Caillouët et al. Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008 Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005
Ryan M. Carney et al. Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008 West Nile Virus in Birds, Argentina
Luis Adrián Diaz et al. Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008 Genetic Variability of West Nile Virus in US Blood Donors, 2002–2005
Andriyan Grinev et al. Volume 14, Number 3—March 2008 Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Pathogenic Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Strains
Elizabeth M. Botha et al. Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008 Magpies as Hosts for West Nile Virus, Southern France
Elsa Jourdain et al. Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008

2007

Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain
Jordi Figuerola et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat
Lisa A. Patrican et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland
Eili Huhtamo et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005
Cynthia M. Jean et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France
Nicolas Ponçon et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter
Jennifer R. Dawson et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Environmental Predictors of Human West Nile Virus Infections, Colorado
Jennifer L. Patnaik et al. Volume 13, Number 11—November 2007 West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas
Tamra E. Meyer et al. Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007 Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Arboviral Disease Transmission
Jennifer A. Lehman et al. Volume 13, Number 8—August 2007 West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes
Kenneth B. Platt et al. Volume 13, Number 6—June 2007 West Nile Virus, Venezuela
Irene Bosch et al. Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007 Genetic Stasis of Dominant West Nile Virus Genotype, Houston, Texas
C. Todd Davis et al. Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007 Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands
Elsa Jourdain et al. Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007 Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus
Kristy O. Murray et al. Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007 Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003
Indira B. Gujral et al. Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007 Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado
Nicole M. Nemeth et al. Volume 13, Number 2—February 2007 Rapid Genome Sequencing of RNA Viruses
Tetsuya Mizutani et al. Volume 13, Number 2—February 2007

2006

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Wild Mammals, Southern Wisconsin
Douglas E. Docherty et al. Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006 West Nile Virus in Horses, sub-Saharan Africa
Olivier Cabre et al. Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006 West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006
Maríaejandra Morales et al. Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006 West Nile Virus Infection in Commercial Waterfowl Operation, Wisconsin
Jennifer K. Meece et al. Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006 West Nile Virus Epizootiology, Central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002–2005
Jeffrey A. Bell et al. Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006 Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection
Kathleen Y. Haaland et al. Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006 Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain
Domingo Bofill et al. Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006 Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado
Jennifer L. Patnaik et al. Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006 West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala
Maria Eugenia Morales-Betoulle et al. Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006 West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba
Maritza Pupo et al. Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006 Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe
Tamás Bakonyi et al. Volume 12, Number 4—April 2006 Cost-effectiveness of West Nile Virus Vaccination
Armineh Zohrabian et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 West Nile Virus Infections Projected from Blood Donor Screening Data, United States, 2003
Edward L. Murphy et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 Host Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes and West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States
Goudarz Molaei et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 West Nile Virus–associated Flaccid Paralysis Outcome
James J. Sejvar et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 Introductions of West Nile Virus Strains to Mexico
Eleanor Deardorff et al. Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

2005

Long-term Death Rates, West Nile Virus Epidemic, Israel, 2000
Manfred S. Green et al. Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005 West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002
Anna M. Mandalakas et al. Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005 Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign
Ellen Averett et al. Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005 Microbe: Are We Ready for the Next Plague?
Peter B. Jahrling Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005 Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds
Ward B. Stone et al. Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005 Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection
Nicholas A. Panella et al. Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005 West Nile Virus Infection and Conjunctival Exposure
Kevin Fonseca et al. Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005 West Nile Virus–infected Mosquitoes, Louisiana, 2002
Marvin S. Godsey et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 Protective Behavior and West Nile Virus Risk
Mark Loeb et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens
Ojimadu A. Ohajuruka et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses
Salim Mattar et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 West Nile Virus Isolation in Human and Mosquitoes, Mexico
Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga et al. Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease
Edward B. Hayes et al. Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005 West Nile Virus Detection in Urine
Jessica H. Tonry et al. Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005 Ancient Myths and Avian Pestilence
Polyxeni Potter Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005 Virology, Pathology, and Clinical Manifestations of West Nile Virus Disease
Edward B. Hayes et al. Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005 West Nile Virus–associated Flaccid Paralysis
James J. Sejvar et al. Volume 11, Number 7—July 2005 West Nile Virus Detection and Commercial Assays
Peter A.G. Tilley et al. Volume 11, Number 7—July 2005 West Nile Virus Surveillance, Guadeloupe, 2003–2004
Thierry Lefrançois et al. Volume 11, Number 7—July 2005 Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Anthony S. Fauci et al. Volume 11, Number 4—April 2005 Novel Flavivirus or New Lineage of West Nile Virus, Central Europe
Tamás Bakonyi et al. Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005 Hazards of Travel—Who Will Free the Contemporary Traveler?
Polyxeni Potter Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005 Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002
Zdenek Hubálek et al. Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

2004

West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002
Ady Y. Gancz et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay
Ady Y. Gancz et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico
David W.C. Beasley et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 West Nile Virus Viremia in Wild Rock Pigeons
Andrew B. Allison et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows
Aaron C. Brault et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers
Kaci Klenk et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 VecTest as Diagnostic and Surveillance Tool for West Nile Virus in Dead Birds
Ward B. Stone et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 West Nile Virus Economic Impact, Louisiana, 2002
Armineh Zohrabian et al. Volume 10, Number 10—October 2004 Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana
Robert B. Tesh et al. Volume 10, Number 9—September 2004 Long-Term Prognosis for Clinical West Nile Virus Infection
Anne Labowitz Klee et al. Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004 FACES 2004 Encephalitis Conference
Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004 West Nile Virus in California
William K. Reisen et al. Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004 West Nile Virus in British Columbia
Michael Aquino et al. Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004 Syndromic Surveillance
Zygmunt F. Dembek et al. Volume 10, Number 7—July 2004 Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico
Bradley J. Blitvich et al. Volume 10, Number 7—July 2004 Enhancing West Nile Virus Surveillance, United States
John S. Brownstein et al. Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004 Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002
Adam M. Ringia et al. Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004 Corvidae Feather Pulp and West Nile Virus Detection
Douglas E. Docherty et al. Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004 Dead Crow Reports and Location of Human West Nile Virus Cases, Chicago, 2002
John T. Watson et al. Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004 West Nile Virus, Guadeloupe
René Quirin et al. Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004 West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)
Rolf-Arne Ølberg et al. Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004 Ixodid and Argasid Tick Species and West Nile Virus
Charles Henderson Lawrie et al. Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004 West Nile Virus and High Death Rate in American Crows
Sarah A. Yaremych et al. Volume 10, Number 4—April 2004 West Nile Poliomyelitis
James J. Sejvar et al. Volume 10, Number 3—March 2004 Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus
Laura E. Austgen et al. Volume 10, Number 1—January 2004

2003

West Nile Virus in Mexico: Evidence of Widespread Circulation since July 2002.
José G. Estrada-Franco et al. Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003 Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis
John S. Marr et al. Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003 West Nile Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primate Breeding Colony, Concurrent with Human Epidemic, Southern Louisiana
Marion S. Ratterree et al. Volume 9, Number 11—November 2003 Genetic Variation among Temporally and Geographically Distinct West Nile Virus Isolates, United States, 2001, 2002
C. Todd Davis et al. Volume 9, Number 11—November 2003 DNA Vaccine for West Nile Virus Infection in Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus)
Michael J. Turell et al. Volume 9, Number 9—September 2003 West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators
Debra L. Miller et al. Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Henri Rousseau—known as Le Douanier Rousseau (1844–1910). The Snake Charmer (1907).
Polyxeni Potter Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Infection in Horses, Yucatan State, Mexico
María A. Loroño-Pino et al. Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Transmission, Jamaica, West Indies
Alan P. Dupuis et al. Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Infection in Horses, Coahuila State, Mexico
Bradley J. Blitvich et al. Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Acute Flaccid Paralysis and West Nile Virus Infection
James J. Sejvar et al. Volume 9, Number 7—July 2003 Dead Bird Clusters as an Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Activity
Farzad Mostashari et al. Volume 9, Number 6—June 2003 Early-Season Avian Deaths from West Nile Virus as Warnings of Human Infection
Stephen C. Guptill et al. Volume 9, Number 4—April 2003 Persistence of Virus-Reactive Serum Immunoglobulin M Antibody in Confirmed West Nile Virus Encephalitis Cases
John T. Roehrig et al. Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003 Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus
Nicholas Komar et al. Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003

2002

Efficacy of Killed Virus Vaccine, Live Attenuated Chimeric Virus Vaccine, and Passive Immunization for Prevention of West Nile virus Encephalitis in Hamster Model
Robert B. Tesh et al. Volume 8, Number 12—December 2002 Induction of Inflammation by West Nile virus Capsid through the Caspase-9 Apoptotic Pathway
Joo-Sung Yang et al. Volume 8, Number 12—December 2002 First Isolation of West Nile virus from a Patient with Encephalitis in the United States
Cinnia Huang et al. Volume 8, Number 12—December 2002 Vector Competence of California Mosquitoes for West Nile virus
Laura B. Goddard et al. Volume 8, Number 12—December 2002 Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Antibodies to West Nile virus in Birds
Gregory D. Ebel et al. Volume 8, Number 9—September 2002 West Nile Virus Outbreak in Horses, Southern France, 2000: Results of a Serosurvey
Benoit Durand et al. Volume 8, Number 8—August 2002 Detection of West Nile Virus in Oral and Cloacal Swabs Collected from Bird Carcasses
Nicholas Komar et al. Volume 8, Number 7—July 2002 Two New Rhabdoviruses (Rhabdoviridae) Isolated from Birds During Surveillance for Arboviral Encephalitis, Northeastern United States
Amelia P.A. Travassos da Rosa et al. Volume 8, Number 6—June 2002 Phylogenetic Analysis of a Human Isolate from the 2000 Israel West Nile virus Epidemic
Thomas Briese et al. Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002 Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile virus
Michel L. Bunning et al. Volume 8, Number 4—April 2002 Introduction of West Nile Virus in the Middle East by Migrating White Storks
Mertyn Malkinson et al. Volume 8, Number 4—April 2002 Immunization with Heterologous Flaviviruses Protective Against Fatal West Nile Encephalitis
Robert B. Tesh et al. Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002 Using a Dynamic Hydrology Model To Predict Mosquito Abundances in Flood and Swamp Water
Jeffrey Shaman et al. Volume 8, Number 1—January 2002

2001

Vector Competence of Selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus
Michael R. Sardelis et al. Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001 West Nile Virus Infection in Birds and Mosquitoes, New York State, 2000
Kristen A. Bernard et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Encephalitis in Israel, 1999: The New York Connection
Michael Giladi et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Clinical Findings of West Nile Virus Infection in Hospitalized Patients, New York and New Jersey, 2000
Don Weiss et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Partial Genetic Characterization of West Nile Virus Strains, New York State, 2000
Gregory D. Ebel et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Clinical Characteristics of the West Nile Fever Outbreak, Israel, 2000
Michal Y. Chowers et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura
Theodore G. Andreadis et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Dead Crow Densities and Human Cases of West Nile Virus, New York State, 2000
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Mosquito Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of West Nile Virus, New York State
Dennis J. White et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Serologic Evidence for West Nile Virus Infection in Birds in the New York City Vicinity During an Outbreak in 1999
Nicholas Komar et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Crow Deaths as a Sentinel Surveillance System for West Nile Virus in the Northeastern United States, 1999
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus: A Reemerging Global Pathogen
Lyle R. Petersen et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus Surveillance in Connecticut in 2000: An Intense Epizootic without High Risk for Severe Human Disease
James Hadler et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Dead Bird Surveillance as an Early Warning System for West Nile Virus
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus Isolates from Mosquitoes in New York and New Jersey, 1999
Roger S. Nasci et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Rapid Determination of HLA B*07 Ligands from the West Nile Virus NY99 Genome
Anne S. De Groot et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus in Overwintering Culex Mosquitoes, New York City, 2000
Roger S. Nasci et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Treatment of West Nile Virus Encephalitis with Intravenous Immunoglobulin
Zvi Shimoni et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Isolation and Characterization of West Nile Virus from the Blood of Viremic Patients During the 2000 Outbreak in Israel
Musa Hindiyeh et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Comparative West Nile Virus Detection in Organs of Naturally Infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Nicholas A. Panella et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Fatal Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Young Domestic Geese (Anser anser domesticus) Caused by West Nile Virus
David E. Swayne et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Detection of North American West Nile Virus in Animal Tissue by a Reverse Transcription-Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay
Donna J. Johnson et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Experimental Infection of Chickens as Candidate Sentinels for West Nile Virus
Stanley A. Langevin et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus Infection in Mosquitoes, Birds, Horses, and Humans, Staten Island, New York, 2000
Varuni L. Kulasekera et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 West Nile Virus Infection in the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): A Model for West Nile Encephalitis
Shu-Yuan Xiao et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Exposure of Domestic Mammals to West Nile Virus during an Outbreak of Human Encephalitis, New York City, 1999
Nicholas Komar et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001 Widespread West Nile Virus Activity, Eastern United States, 2000
Anthony A. Marfin et al. Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001

2000

Migratory Birds and Spread of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere
John H. Rappole et al. Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000 Isolation of Two Strains of West Nile Virus during an Outbreak in Southern Russia, 1999
D.K. Lvov et al. Volume 6, Number 4—August 2000

There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness. You can reduce your risk of WNV by using insect repellent and wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants to prevent mosquito bites.

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